Class Notes (807,646)
Canada (492,772)
Geography (944)
GGR241H1 (22)
Lecture 8

Lecture Eight.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Robert Lewis

Lecture Eight: Segregation and the Social Relations of Place: Bombay, C. 1901 Today's Question: What was the character of social segregation in Indian colonial cities? Structure 1. Segregation in Bombay and Calcutta in 1901 2. Bombay: dualism and the social relations of place 3. Bombay's Modern Town (Current downtown Bombay) Segregation in Bombay and Calcutta Colonial cities including Bombay and Calcutta were highly segregated places Relatively little contact between the European sectors of the city and Indian Town (Kidambi, 2007:35) Using a scale to determine dissimilarity by religion (If zero than no segregation) wrt. to Bombay and Calcutta there was high segregation especially in Parsi and Muslim religion. o Eurasians made up Christian religion (European and Indian) Segregation within religion o Parsi: wealthiest people in colonial Britain o Muslim: At the bottom end Segregation were defined by place of residence was high when examining location quotient values which represents whether or not the group is over or under represented in a spatial. (If 1 than overrepresented and [high])  [High] in modern town for Europeans o Europeans were the most highly segregated and Christians but most Eurasian-Christians lived in Native Town Segregation: Paralleled by a great deal of 'communal' segregation  Most Muslims in the Native Town and Muslim Town (mid-Bombay) Calcutta is an import city with most Muslims [ ] there. Bombay-Dualism Dualistic representation of Bombay Relational space between MT and NT, European and Native, respectively, creating social realities, determining where resources were allocated as European modernity imposed on Indian space demonstrating colonial power over urban space. 1. Modern Town was homogenous with European quarters, major colonial institutions incld. recreational, business center, center of modernity 2. Native Town proved Edward Siad's view on orientalism as it produced a meaning of spaces o A world apart from the European one - backward, traditional, chaotic, exotic When we reached the native town how changed was the scene. Europe was left behind, and the East was realized – the narrow winding streets, the open shops, small, but highly characteristic, where the owner, Hindu, Mahomedan, or Jew, squatted amidst his wares Mrs. Guthrie, 1877 Socially differentiated space: residential clustering that reflects the intermixing of class and community - real reality of Native Town but oversimplified by Mrs. Guthrie's othering Key Elements of Place: Flow of people/capital/info., relation, multiple, conflict  NT is Native in relation to MT's European modernity  Shapes what it means to be European in colonialism Social Relations of Place Bombay was highly segregated although spaces were heterogeneous  Wide diversity of class and communal groups since they were mainly Hindu/Parsi/some Christians o Microscale of Hindu and Parsi when Mrs. Guthrie described it since the majority of Bombay were not Christians o Europeans were minority at best being 12% of community  Wide range of occupations although Bombay (NT) was highly concentrated in general labor, cooks, indoor servants, cotton workers in comparison to Modern Town Bombay's Modern Town Cultural Interactions (Current downtown Bombay) Europeans and Indians functioned alongside each other in creating city's major imperial node and adjacent residential districts.  Europeans lived socially separate from Hindu but physically closer to Hindus in comparison to other Europeans o Europeans visited Indian bazaars and had better housing (range of housing types) Attempts to Create Separate Spaces The absence of a European enclave was not for wanting of trying.  Recreation of Modern-Native Town after 1803 fire and tried to creating it as an European space through cultural ideology of racial separation and exhausting of municipal funds to create European spaces Modern Town was a node in linking imperial Bombay to pol't network but was permeable and interactions stopped it from being strictly an European.  Imperial articulation: knowledge networks, capital investment, population movements, administrative regimes  Permeability/Interaction Prosperous, sleek Parsee merchant .... Europeans in white drill and grey or white pith helmets …native servants, Hindu, Portuguese and half-caste,... wandering minstrels, ... water carriers, ... coolies and coolie women, ... the bearer and ayah in charge of faired-haired English children, ... the British soldier in khaki, and the native policeman in blue and yellow Walter Crane (1906) at Watson’s, on the Esplanade Walter accurately depicts what MT w
More Less

Related notes for GGR241H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.