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Lecture 10

GGR241 Lecture Ten.docx

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Robert Lewis

Lecture Ten: Empire and Colonial Order – Strategies of Control Today’s Question: What sort of local initiatives and regulations were implemented to control African urban spaces? Structure  Dar es Salaam  Dar es Salaam: local control measures  Dar es Salaam: influx control measures Dar es Salaam Tanzania in 1964  1885 – 1918: German East Africa  1918: Transferred to Allies (After Germany lost in WW)  1918 – 61: British colony  1961: Becomes independent Old Sultanate town of Mzizima  1887 – 1918: Admin and commercial center of German East Africa  1918 – 1961: Britian’s main urban center in the colony Small Urban Center that compromised of indigenous settlements with primarily Africans than Asians, few Europeans. Key Issues For Colonial Authorities 1. How to establish control over urban racial space 2. How to ensure that the much larger African pop’n did not rise up 3. How to maintain social order while at the same time controlling racial boundaries Dar es Salaam: Local Control British established control through the imposition of four institutional forms Measures 1. First: Admin. measures: Town Authority (municipal gov’t) 2. Second: Judicial – British and indigenous court system 3. Coercive Power: Police force (Tanganyika Police) to quell problems 4. Fourth: Segregate the city by using other institutional forms to divide the town into separate spaces and to ensure colonial control over them Different Zones 1. Zone One: Uzunguni: European and Admin. district 2. Zone Two: Uhindini – Indian and bazaar district 3. Zone Three: Uswhilini – African district a. Did not accept that the African could belong in the city 4. Zone Four: Buffer zone separating Africans from Europeans (greenery) Dar es Salaam: Influx Control Another Key Issues – What to do with the growing number of native Africa? Measure  Control through physical env’t The free movement of Africans is a problem because of the need for colonial powers to control labour supply and to police social interaction. If they have too much workers than not enough jobs, if too little workers than could not deliver supplies. Highly segregated based on gender and race. Several actions were undertaken between 1918 and 1930 1. British drove surplus native wartime workers and soldiers out of the day 2. Measures created to restrict movement (1919 Township Regulation S.146) a. Allow gov’t to control the African body (ex. Peddler) b. Allow gov’t time to occupy in the city 3. City leaders given ext. police power (1923 Destitute Person Ordnance) a. Illegal to be Destitute with Judges forcing them to go back to home 4. Unemployment was criminalized (1930 Township Regulation S. 166/167) McRoberts Ruling 1940: ruled that S. 146 (passed in 1919) restricting African movement was invalid because technically incorrect, arbitrary (no reason assigned to it) and unreasonable (racist). The McRoberts ruling was incomprehensible to the city’s European for several reasons and forced the British to seek out new ways of controlling the native pop’n. New forms of control included the Removal of Undesirable Natives’ Regulation (1941) and Township Ordnance (1944).  1941: Passed in terms of war and allow for removal  1944: Similar to S. African pass laws requiring them to have an ID in order to pass as a citizen Concluding remarks 1. Complex system of pol’t repression 2. Variety of everyday institutions were used to order and control African
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