Lecture Ten: Empire and Colonial Order – Strategies of Control
Today’s Question: What sort of local initiatives and regulations were implemented to control African urban spaces?
Structure Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam: local control measures
Dar es Salaam: influx control measures
Dar es Salaam Tanzania in 1964
1885 – 1918: German East Africa
1918: Transferred to Allies (After Germany lost in WW)
1918 – 61: British colony
1961: Becomes independent
Old Sultanate town of Mzizima
1887 – 1918: Admin and commercial center of German East Africa
1918 – 1961: Britian’s main urban center in the colony
Small Urban Center that compromised of indigenous settlements with primarily
Africans than Asians, few Europeans.
Key Issues For Colonial Authorities
1. How to establish control over urban racial space
2. How to ensure that the much larger African pop’n did not rise up
3. How to maintain social order while at the same time controlling racial
Dar es Salaam: Local Control British established control through the imposition of four institutional forms
Measures 1. First: Admin. measures: Town Authority (municipal gov’t)
2. Second: Judicial – British and indigenous court system
3. Coercive Power: Police force (Tanganyika Police) to quell problems
4. Fourth: Segregate the city by using other institutional forms to divide the
town into separate spaces and to ensure colonial control over them
1. Zone One: Uzunguni: European and Admin. district
2. Zone Two: Uhindini – Indian and bazaar district
3. Zone Three: Uswhilini – African district
a. Did not accept that the African could belong in the city
4. Zone Four: Buffer zone separating Africans from Europeans (greenery)
Dar es Salaam: Influx Control Another Key Issues – What to do with the growing number of native Africa?
Measure Control through physical env’t
The free movement of Africans is a problem because of the need for colonial powers
to control labour supply and to police social interaction. If they have too much
workers than not enough jobs, if too little workers than could not deliver supplies.
Highly segregated based on gender and race.
Several actions were undertaken between 1918 and 1930
1. British drove surplus native wartime workers and soldiers out of the day
2. Measures created to restrict movement (1919 Township Regulation S.146)
a. Allow gov’t to control the African body (ex. Peddler)
b. Allow gov’t time to occupy in the city
3. City leaders given ext. police power (1923 Destitute Person Ordnance)
a. Illegal to be Destitute with Judges forcing them to go back to home
4. Unemployment was criminalized (1930 Township Regulation S. 166/167) McRoberts Ruling 1940: ruled that S. 146 (passed in 1919) restricting African
movement was invalid because technically incorrect, arbitrary (no reason assigned to
it) and unreasonable (racist). The McRoberts ruling was incomprehensible to the
city’s European for several reasons and forced the British to seek out new ways of
controlling the native pop’n.
New forms of control included the Removal of Undesirable Natives’ Regulation (1941)
and Township Ordnance (1944).
1941: Passed in terms of war and allow for removal
1944: Similar to S. African pass laws requiring them to have an ID in order to
pass as a citizen
Concluding remarks 1. Complex system of pol’t repression
2. Variety of everyday institutions were used to order and control African