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Lecture Two - Slums, Favellas and Barrios.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Lewis

Lecture Two - Slums, Favellas and Barrios What is the long term trend of urban growth, why 1. Defining the world's regions has this occurred, and what are the consequences 2. Urbanization trends for housing in the urban south? 3. Mega Cities like Mubai 4. Explaining urban changes 5. Housing in the Third World Defining the World Regions: how are they 1. MDCs and LDCs separated? 2. North and South = developed and under/undeveloped a. Undeveloped: suggesting growth is possible with the help of the develop b. Underdeveloped: assumes the country is underdeveloped because of the developed 3. Political: First (capitalist), second (soviet/communism), third worlds Defining Regions: these regional defn. are not static 1. National income is an excellent measure  Allowing the absence of violent and a. Indicator of the economic and social differences advancement in lifestyle as that exist btw. countries under/undeveloped countries change 2. NICs: recent competition to the economic power of the more developed world (going from under/undeveloped to developed) 3. HDI: a way to assess the opportunities available to people (normalized measure with life expectancy, GPI - 0.950 is high) Urbanization Trend l 1. Modern day levels of urbanization emerge after 1800s 1. 40% of the population in urban 2000s and are conc. on the Atlantic Ocean (N. Euro) system 2. 10% of the population in urban 1890s a. Britain was the first urban nation 3. 3% of population in urban before 1800s 2. Large scale growth btw. 1850 and 1950 spreads out from North American and Western Europe 3. Large scale acceleration in the postwar period a. 2008: more than 1/2 of the world's population lived in cities and large cities were found in most parts of the world Urbanization Trend ll: changing distribution of the 1. Changing distribution of the world's urban population world's population as the 'less developed' parts of the as significantly greater number of the world's city world experience unprecedented urban growth dwellers will live in 'less developed regions' a. Less developed regions and number of ppl. in millions living in urban space (UN, 1995) i. 1970: 676 ii. 1994: 1,653 iii. 2025: 4025 Urbanization Trend lll: the growing scale of cities 1. Concentrated in Asia (esp. China) from modernization of agricultural practices 2. Mega-cities: emergence of them growing importance of them only defn. with 8 million people a. 1800: Beijing, London, Guangzhou b. 1900: London, New York, Paris (esp. in Atlantic) c. 1950: New York, London, Tokyo i. New York and London is a mega city d. 2020: Tokyo, Mumbai, Delhi i. All mega cities (Tokyo = pop. of CND) 3. UN, 1995 citing the number of mega cities (number of mega cities in less developed/total mega cities) a. 1970: 5/11, 1994: 16/22, 2000: 19/25, 2012: 27/33 How can we explain these changes? 1. Transformation of London causes poverty as Margaret's How did we get here? How have scholars and policy policies does not help makers explained urbanization and various types of 2. Transformation of Soeul in Gangnam (complete split) cities? Modernization Theory by Walter Rostow (1916 - Modernization theorist who argued that the Third World 2003) would 'develop' as a result of the diffusion of pol't, economic and social structures from the Frist World Modernization Theory: stages of development are 1. Traditional Society: Subsistence, ba
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