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L2 Resource Economies.docx

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Sally Turner

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GGR246 Lecture 2: Resource Economies West Coast Cordillera - trees Prairies - Oil deposits from an ancient sea Newfoundland - Oil deposits Canadian Shield - Mineral deposits - How many communities build up in the Canadian shield? NWT - Diamonds East Coast - Cod - Continental shelf - Resource mismanagement! Harold Inns: Staples Theory - Resources are the basis of Canada’s economic growth - Consider where ppl live and how they live - We will examine the East Coast Fishery Alternative Development Strategy - How does change come along when industries collapse? Case Studies - BC: Forestry – sustainable Practices o commons - ON: Mining – ghost towns o Alternative development strategies available for communities - NFL: Fisheries – sustainability and alternative development strategies BC Forestry: Background - Significantly larger forestry resource - Economic significance shows that it has decreased over time - DOES NOT mean value of forestry is decreasing - CP railway opened up markets into Canada - There has been a push to increase value of products from the forest 1. Defining he Forest - ½ of BC is covered in forest - only ¼ BC is available for timber harvesting - 5 broad physiographic regions – distinct combos of: climate, landforms, vegetation, and soil - We can lump those 5 regions into 2 categories: - Coastal forest o Rainforest (douglas fir, red cedar) o Wet marine climate o High rainfall o Mild temperatures - Interior forest o Semi-arid climate o Boreal forest (spruce and pine + others) 2. Economic Significance fo the Forest - 1 in 6 jobs in BC s directly or indirectly derived from forestry o Transportation o - >130 BC communities are largely dependent on the forest industry 3. Resource Management - clear-cutting: o destroys ecosystems o taking away larger trees (habitats, shade for smaller plants, shrubs) o issues soil erosion, lack of nutrients (no more decaying of plants/ recycling nutrients  very difficult to restart habitat), infertile, compacted soil - over-harvesting: o destruction of ecosystem o destruction of communities Tragedy of the Commons: Garrett Hardin (1968) - when there is a shared resource (natural), ppl will over exploit the resource and overlook how they should use the resource sustainably - if one company is gonna do it, everyone’s gonna do it. - Once the resources is destroyed in the short term, it cannot be used in the long term 4. Measures to Reduce Over Exploitation - Improvements in management techniques (1980s) - Changes to BC’s Forest Renewal Policy (1990s) o Who can use the forest o When (time frame) Improvements in Management Techiques (1980s) - Key Innovation 1: transfer of responsibility and cost of regeneration from the provincial gov’t - The most important step that the gov’t took - Key Innovation 2: technological advancements o Improved step preparation o Purposes: o Methods: o Mechanical: o Chemical: o Issue: making sure the saplings survive - Increased brushing Changes to BC’s Forest Renewal Policy (1990s) Silviculture Plans & Prescriptions Clear –cutting - Limits on size of cutbacks Sol Protection - Protecting forest soil from excessive disturbance due to:… Ecosystem-based management - Climate, sol, and vegetation data identifies 100 Biodiversity Genetically Improved Seed - Wherever possible, genetically improved seed must be used - Improves growth rates and survival rates of saplings Goals - To ensure the ongoing health of BC’s forests - To ensure the ongoing biodiversity of BC’s forest - To ensure the ongoing economic viability of BC’s forest Which definition of Sustainability do you think is best? - A 40% o Talks about all the diff aspects of environmental sustainability o Economic value and social value - B - C - D 38% o Definition that is popularly used in publications o Not very specific ON: Mining - Toronto  agricultural economy - Montreal  St. Lawrence, trading - Canadian Shield – mineral rich - Entire communities built around mines - Boom and bust cycles o Boom = when a natural resource is discovered and rapidly exploited o Bust = when a resource is nearing its end, the communities dependent go bust - Challenges: non-renewable resource, o increased mechanization  profits run out quickly because resource depletes quickly; reducing the time the industry will be around for  increased mechanization = less jobs; reducing number of ppl that can get jobs out of the industry Ghost Towns: Mining’s Legacy - ppl live there in the first place only for the industry - Burchell Lake o Remote, far from main population centres o Mining co
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