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Canada (508,934)
Geography (975)
GGR246H1 (29)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - 3 slides.pdf

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR246H1
Professor
Sally Turner
Semester
Fall

Description
24/11/2012 Building Canada: Immigration and the case of multiculturalism 1 Road Map (1) Defining ‘Citizenship’ (2) Pre-Confederation: Immigration as a colonial tool (4) Post-war crisis and the points system West (1) Defining Citizenship - Politicalcitizenship - Activecitizenship - Social citizenship 1 24/11/2012 PoliticalCitizenship: The politicalstatus of citizenship,with its associated rightsand responsibilities Responsibilities: asl s’onnanedUb thgirehtgniihyleoios-serpxE s and freedoms of others ocutni srleto-pH otnnaegatotcenarof-eraC ecitsnoitiircs-iilEnm edna,laicnivoruoitceleVi-eto ral) yocehtgnbni slaedi uSadanaC-tro 4 Rights: sthgir-lageL sthgirqEi-lau sthgiryioilM sthgiroeplabog-iA htdeerF hcedeerF oigildeerF yeslbsaluficaepot-thgR tpssaparpp-yA oitceleu-iR oitcelenietoiot-thgR 5 Canadian Citizens Permanent Residents Refugee Claimants TemporaryImmigrants -Workvisa - Study visa IllegalImmigrants 2 24/11/2012 Active Citizenship: Actively participatingin society;fulfilling both your rightsand responsibilities. 7 Social Citizenship:Inclusionwithinsociety egatirehlaicoinierahsot-thgR ateicosgniliaverpotgnidroccaefilevilot-thgR l standards secivrenoideotssecCaevitce-llo golebfoesn-esA 8 ThroughoutCanada’s history, which groupshave been considered‘citizens’, and which haven’t? Who has been restricted from being an active memberof Canadian society throughoutour history? 9 3 24/11/2012 (2) Pre-Confederation: Immigration as a colonial to ol EarlyEuropean explorersand settlers ‘Founders’ of Canadian society European architecture Language Culture Institutions Relocationof Native Canadian communitiesaway from areas of European settlement 4 24/11/2012 Limited incorporationof Native communitiesinto the new society Treaty of Paris (1763):Ceded controlof New France to Britain Britishuse immigrationas a colonialtool: - Subsequent influxof Englishimmigrantsinto New France - Deportation of the Acadians 14 Acadians:Descendants of French settlersthat lived in Acadia Contested land between the French and Britishterritories Britishconquest in 1710 – many refuse to sign oathes 5 24/11/2012 The Great Expulsion 1755 – approximately 11,500 expelled (3/4 of the population) Land and property confiscated, homes burned Expulsion to France, some fled to Louisiana Early colonial immigration - Influxof Britishimmigrantsto overwhelm existingcultures - Removal of non-Britishgroups (natives, acadians) - Imposed a way of lifeand set of institutionsof existing population - Marginalizedother communitiesculturallyand economically (3) Imperialism and the settlement of the West Imperialism:The policyof extending the ruleor authorityof an empire or nation over foreign countries,or of acquiring and holdingcoloniesand dependencies. 6 24/11/2012 1867 – Confederation;Independence from Britain Policydevelopment and ideologyremains tied to London European Supremacy and the ‘White Man’s Burden’ Imperialism: ‘easy’ process due to advanced economei s and weaponry Logical argument: Europeans are racially and cultur ally superior White people have an ‘obligation’ to rule over, and encourage the cultural development of people from other ethnic and cultural backgrounds until they can take their place in the world economically and socially. Moral duty to help the poor ‘better themselves’ Justification for ‘noble’ colonialism 7 24/11/2012 Logical argument: European supremacy -> Europeans (British) should be the only immigrants into Canada Lord Clifford Sifton Minister of the Interior: 1896-1905 2 waves of migration to the West: 1.) Canada, Britain, US 2.) Eastern Europeans –Poland, Russia, rural Germany 23 ‘Undesireables’ 24 8 24/11/2012 ‘Continuous Journey’Act - 1908 25 Vancouver to Calcutta - Banned 26 Amendment: April 1908 ‘No immigrantof Asiatic originshall be permittedto enter Canada unless in actual and personal possession in his or her own right of two hundred dollars,unless such person is a native or subject of an Asiatic countryin regard to which special statutory regulations are in forceor with whichthe Government of Canada has made a special treaty, agreement or convention’. 27 9 24/11/2012 Settlement of the west: A new home for Europeans Rectangulargrid system stamped onto the cultural landscape Accepted cultureand settlement structure Land divided between: PR HBC Homesteaders 10 24/11/2012 A living legacy Grid system history erases the existence of original settlements 11 24/11/2012 Long-term Metissettlement along the Red River (nor th of present-day Winnipeg) 1812: HBC gives the land to British settler Lord Selkirk to bring in Scottish settlers Metis have no official title to the land Red River settlement is the only one of size in theunsettled west Economy: Buffalo hunting and subsistence farming 12 24/11/2012 1869: Louis Riel tells surveyor to leave Banned Lieutenant Governor to leave when taking control of the territory Metis formed a provisional government – attempts to negotiate entry into confederation 1870: Ottawa sends troops in, Riel flees to US Preference for European immigrants Need for cheap labour Anti-Chinese Sentiment: Politicians wanted labour from the UK for the CPR Sir John A. MacDonald: "It is simply a question of alternatives: either you must have this labour or you can't have the railway.“ Chinese labour accepted on the basis it would helpEuro-centric Canadian society 13 24/11/2012 Movement to nearly towns and cities: Cafes, laundromats 40 1885:$50 1900:$100 1903:$500 (equivalent of $8000) Head Tax: Method to deter Chinese immigration ‘We have plenty of room for many thousands of Chinaman... There can be no shadow of a doubt but th
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