Class Notes (838,272)
Canada (510,817)
Geography (975)
GGR246H1 (29)


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Sally Turner

Physical distance between reserves and resource sites Lack of involvement in decision making processes Lack of communication Lack of trust Lack of education and training Lack of sustainability First Nations Forestry Program (Ontario):-A partnership between First Nations, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) and Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service (NRCan-CFS)- Launched in 1996- Funding for First Nations entrepreneurs looking to use Northern Ontario’s forestry resources- Overcomes several barriers in terms of granting First Nations greater access to natural resources:- Education and training- Financial funding- Trust Reserves:-Legal barriers to homeownership- Low incomes- High housing costs- Poorly constructed houses Cross Lake reserve in northern Manitoba, Kashechewan reserve in northern Ontario, Ahousaht First Nations Reserve: Vancouver Island, Federal Programs to improve on-reserve housing Canada’s Economic Action Plan- A 2-year stimulus program (2008-2010)- Infrastructure investments- New jobs in construction Social Housing Renovation & Retrofit Program: $125 million-Upgrades to already existing housing on reserves New Construction Program: $125 million-Dedicated to expanding the supply of on-reserve housing Additional $150 million for long-term projects Diet-Related Illnesses Reserves: - Resource poor- Infertile land Off-Reserves:- Higher proportion of low income earners- Lower education levels- Forgotten culture Stress-related Illnesses:- Cultural disruption- Poverty-induced stress Overcrowding:- Infectious diseases- TB, HIV- Parasitic diseases Barriers to health care access:- Cultural- Geographic- Infant mortality- Cancer- Hypertension Unemployment - Isolation, Discouragement, Lack of on-reserve employment, Subsistence-level activities, Cash-economy, Lower education levels, Suicide Rates: “I am here today because my ancestors, starving as they often were, fought to survive. Why did the old people strive to live ... and the young people now want to die?”, Suicide rates 2 or 3 times higher than Canadian average, Suicide rates for youth 5 or 6 times higher than for non Native youth Moving Forward… Acknowledging history and its consequences, Accepting responsibility, Prioritizing land claims, Forfeiting economic gain, Effectiveness of the transfer payment system? Jacques Cartier: 1534, Quebec City: 1608 Samuel de Champlain Locational Advantages Fur, Whales, Trade Route Seigneurial System: Seven Years of War: 1756-1763 European Colonial Powers, Battles: Europe, Africa, India, North America, South America, Philippine Islands Quebec City held captive 1759-1763 Treaty of Paris (1763): Ceded control of New France to Britain British governor installed Guadalupe & Martinique: Sugar resources Quebec Act: 1774 - Guaranteed free practice of Catholic faith, Restored the use of French Civil Law for private matters, Public matters (administration) governed by English Common Law French pushed away from prime agricultural lands further inland Growing tensions turn of nineteenth century, rebellions 1837, Colonial governors in Upper and Lower Canada easily bribed, Chateau Clique – Lower Canada, Family Compact – Upper Canada Province of Canada: 1841 Push for ‘responsible’ government, Attempted assimilation of the French , English became the sole official language of the union, Mass immigration of English-speakers into Lower Canada, Lord Durham: ‘Two nations warring in the bosom of a single state’.‘A people with no literature and no history’. Catholic Church as the key to maintaining language and culture Confederation, 1867 - Economic union, Protection of the French language, Control over education system, Expansion of territory, Ability to shape Canada’s future Quebec: 1960s Rural, Poverty, Foreign companies, Church control: political policies, education, finances, welfare Key issue: French language, Multi-national corporations Federalists: Pierre Trudeau, Separatists: Rene Levesque Manicouagan: Daniel-Johnson Dam, Symbolic value “The development of James Bay is the key to economic progress in Quebec; it is also key to its social progress and its political stability: it is the future of Quebec.”- Robert Bourassa Inside Hydro Quebec: - Job creation- Francophone in entirety Pension Plan- Funds for business development- Natural resource infrastructure Also: Societe generale de finance Societe Quebecois des mineraux Low interest business loans Mineral exploitation Religiously-focused education Girls trained only to be ‘maitresses de maison Science and technology- Larger high schools- Co-eds- Community college system Robert Bourassa: 1970-76 focus on attracting business and investment Less concerned with social development Front de Liberation du Quebec- Protests- Kidnappings- Attempted bombings Bill 101: Language Rights The right to have the civil administration, the health services and social services, the public utility enterprises, the professional corporations, the associations of employees and all enterprises doing business in Quebec communicate in French. The right to speak French in deliberative assemblies, The right of workers to carry on their activities in French, The right of consumers to be informed and served in French, The right of persons eligible for instruction in Quebec to receive that instruction in French Rene Levesque Parti Quebecois 1968 Premier 1976- Increased minimum wage- Increased labour rights- Maternity leave- Increased daycare access- Funding for small Francophone businesses- Funding for French cultural groups- Protection of agricultural land 1980 Referendum "The Government of Quebec has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of Canada, based on the equality of nations; this agreement would enable Quebec to acquire the exclusive power to make its laws, levy its taxes and establish relations abroad — in other words, sovereignty — and at the same time to maintain with Canada an economic association including a common currency; any change in political status resulting from these negotiations will only be implemented with popular approval through another referendum; on these terms, do you give the Government of Quebec the mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada? YES 40.44% NO 59.56% Meech Lake Accord, 1987- a recognition of Quebec as a "distinct society"- a constitutional veto for Quebec and the other provinces- increased provincial powers with respect to immigration- extension and regulation of the right for a reasonable financial compensation to any province that chooses to opt out of any future federal programs in areas of exclusive provincial jurisdiction- provincial input in appointing senators and Supreme Court judges Designed to secure Quebec’s place within Canada Concern over devolution of federal powers Angered Native Canadians Quebec ‘no more distinct’ than other places Charlottetown Accord, 1992 - provided for exclusive provincial jurisdiction over forestry, mining, and other natural resources, and cultural policy. - required the federal and provincial governments to harmonize policy in areas such as telecommunications, labour development and training, regional development, and immigration. 1995 Referendum "Do you agree that Québec should become sovereign after having made a formal offer to Canada for a new economic and political partnership within the scope of the bill respecting the future of Québec and of the agreement signed on June 12, 1995? 50.6% NO 1998 – Supreme Court of Canada: No province can unilaterally declare its independence (1) Defining Citizenship - Political citizenship - Active citizenship - Social citizenship Political Citizenship: The political status of citizenship, with its associated rights and responsibilities Responsibilities:- Understand and obey Canada’s laws- Express opinions freely while respecting the rights and freedoms of others- Help others in the community- Care for and protect our heritage and environment- Eliminate discrimination and injustice- Vote in elections (municipal, provincial, and federal)- Support Canada’s ideals in building the country Rights:- Legal rights- Equality rights- Mobility rights- Aboriginal peoples’ rights- Freedom of thought- Freedom of speech- Freedom of religion- Right to peaceful assembly- Apply for a passport- Run in elections- Right to vote in elections Active Citizenship: Actively participating in society; fulfilling both your rights and responsibilities. Social Citizenship: Inclusion within society- Right to share in social heritage- Right to live life according to prevailing societal standards- Collective access to education and social services- A sense of belonging Throughout Canada’s history, which groups have been considered ‘citizens’, and which haven’t? Who has been restricted from being an active member of Canadian society throughout our history? (2) Pre-Confederation: Immigration as a colonial tool Early European explorers and settlers ‘Founders’ of Canadian society European architecture: Language, Culture, Institutions Relocation of Native Canadian communities away from areas of European settlement Acadians: Descendants of French settlers that lived in Acadia Contested land between the French and British territories British conquest in 1710 – many refuse to sign oaths The Great Expulsion: 1755 – approximately 11,500 expelled (3/
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