Class Notes (837,693)
Canada (510,397)
Geography (975)
GGR246H1 (29)

First Two Lectures

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Stephen Swales

September 12, 2013 Focus Focus will be on the production and politics of Canada as a nation Common threads: violence and exclusion especially as sanctioned in law and policy Themes: representation, colonialism, nature, resources, immigration, border, border, war, regionalism, territoriality Immigration and multiculturalism Temporary migrant workers The Canadian Border 1. Knowing Canada: nation, identity, geography 2. Canada and the violent geographies of colonialism 3. Resources, frontiers and territorial expansion 4. Aboriginal people’s territorial claims and economic development projects in Canada a. Oct. 10 – short paper 1 due (20% of final mark) 5. Great white north: nature, nation and the North (Guest Lecture: Matt Farish 6. Oct. 24 – Midterm (in-class) a. Definitions b. Short answers c. Essay i. Will draw on lectures and readings 7. Where are you from? Geographies of immigration and multiculturalism 8. Not good enough to stay? Temporary migrant workers as non-citizens 9. Selective entry: geographies of the Canadian border 10.War and peace: Canada in the world 11.The place and politics of agricultural migrant works in Canada a. Nov. 21 – short paper 2 due 12.What’s next? Canada moving forward I am Canadian Rant Jeff Douglas is best known to Canadians as “Joe Canadian” from a Molson’s beer TV commercial He performs his routine from the “I Am Canadian” campaign at an NHL game in Toronto in April 2000 1 GGR 246 – J.P. Catungal Uses an English speaking, white male to represent the Canadian nation Mentioned diversity – not assimilation Differentiation in places Capital cities Hockey comes to be an important space in articulating Canadian nationalism Starts quiet and polite, and becomes boisterous and passionate Louder form of Canadian nationalism Even though the outside world views us as quiet and polite However, he does say thank you at the end Joe says he does not live in an igloo “We Are More” – Shane Koyczan Vastness and optimism Hopefulness to what Canadian futures what might look like Focuses on people – diversity Little Italy Chinatown Ethnourban “Z not Z-ee” was mentioned Hockey was another mention September 19, 2013 New Canadian Passport • Evidence of citizenship • Confers benefits onto holders • Crucial for global (i.e., inter-state) mobility • Geopolitical, but also social and cultural “Celebrate our History and Culture” • Re-design as re-narration of nation o We have a new passport design with a chip to prevent fraud • Mages in Canadian passport as ‘nationalist pedagogy’ • Uplifts certain geographical representations of Canada while others are erased 2 • New passport provides very narrow definition of what Canada is – Racialized (as white), gendered (as male [founding fathers – very few women on passport]), agricultural (resource extraction), very little aboriginal depiction (only aboriginal symbols are shown, not people) o “In designing the new e-Passport, we consciously selected iconic Canadian images that are representative of Canada, especially from a historical perspective. The images showcase the building of our great nation, offer an opportunity to learn more about Canada, and promote our unique identity around the world” – Joanne St-Amour • Competing visions of nation o Multiple but not always equal o Some more official than others • The nation as political project, not a thing Benedict Anderson “It is imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign” Nation is limited in the sense that it has boundaries Despite there being differences in membership, it entails the discourse of the nation – belonging and non-belonging Roger Brubaker “Nationhood is not an ethnodemographic or ethnocultural fact; it is a political claim Is used, rather, to change the world, to change the way people see themselves, to mobilize loyalties, kindle energies, and articulate demands From ‘What is a nation?’ to ‘How is it used an to what effects?’ Nation As Social Construction Social construction: reality is brought into being through knowledge and action Nation is not a naturally existing entity, but a product of political discourses and actions Therefore, multiple and changing over time and space Social construction is not pure imagination Homi Bhabha 3 In each of these ‘foundational fictions’ the origins of national traditions turn out to be as much as acts of affiliation and establishment as they are moments of disavowal, displacement, exclusion, and cultural contestation Canadian Exemptionalism Differentiation – key process in Canadian nation-building Usually against the United States Mostly discursive – talk of values, attitudes, etc. Sometimes manifests itself in territorial terms Eve Mackey “Mythologies have been developed and changed in order to build national identity in changing circumstances” Edward Said Just as none of us is outside or beyond geography, none of us is free from the struggle over geography. That struggle is complex and interesting because it is not only about soldiers and cannons but also about ideas, about forms, about images and imaginings. Nation and ‘Scale’ Scale – one or more levels of representation, experience and organization of geographical events and processes 34 million people 9, 985, 000 km^2 10 provinces 3 territories 4 September 26, 2013 Nation as ‘Territoriality’ “The assignment of persons and social groups to discrete areas through the use of boundaries” Tactic of exclusion and inclusion Nation as Territorial Acts The specific uses of space for the purpose of nation-building Claiming space Classifying people in and out of place Bounding space Setting of the limits of where the nation begins and ends Nation and Belonging If nation = ‘imagined community’, then how are people invited to be part of the community? Interpellation – process by which an individual is addressed, often but not always, by the state, as a subject of a particular social relation The “Hey, you!” example in Louis Althusser McGee’s Critique The Althusserian notion does not allow the subject to participate in the production of the social relation, e.g., nation, which is already pre-defined McGee ‘corrects’ this by emphasizing the ability of audiences to participate in nation- building by allowing them to engage with defining the ‘nation’ to which they are invited Ex
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