Class Notes (810,488)
Canada (494,139)
Geography (945)
GGR252H1 (74)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Stephen Swales

Lecture 2 Understanding “Urban Geography” I  Understand and interpret the distribution of towns and cities  Account for the difference mad similarities between them and within them – neighborhoods are constantly changing and evolving (Yorkville , $100 000 income, minimum just to shop or eat there, 1960 it was the most bohemian neighborhood in the city, center of revolution of student change )  Two Key Themes o Spatial distribution of town and cities- system of cities (where are they located , why are they there, how did they get like that ) o Internal structure of the city – city as a system (how are they linked to one another, housing, transportation, planning, social system – this shows us that none of theses systems run alone they are rely on each other)  Discipline is eclectic – for every discipline there s a urban component  Discipline of Urban Geography is : o Descriptive – recognition and description of the urban areas internal structure – patterns and processes (doesn’t tell you any more than what’s there) o Interpretive – examining how people understand and react to these patterns (your answering the “so what” ) o Explanatory – looks for the origins of these patterns and processes (“what does it mean?”) Approaches to Urban Geography  Environmentalism o Dominant up to the mid 20 Century o Relationship between people and their environment – explains how cities have evolved o Site and situation studies i.e. Physical characteristics determine urban development – how does the location of the city play a role in the social dynamics of the area o Urban Morphology – how urban areas have grown and changed over time (physical layout of the streets, help understand how the city has evolved) o Recent work concentrated on the production, form, and design of urban areas  Positivism o General paradigm shift in the 1950s o Human behavior is determined or influenced by scientific and universal laws- looking at the models of land use o How scientific laws produced observable patterns of urban activity or form ‘on-the-ground’ o Two broad approaches – Ecological, and Neo-classical Ecological  Human Behavior is based on ecological principles  Most powerful groups obtain the most advantageous place in a given space – the power people got control of the area , they lived on the best land they have a greater income Neo-Classical  Driving force was rationality  Homo-Economicus or economic rationality of human behavior  Cost- minimization or benefits-maximization Behavioral And Humanistic  Emerged in the 1970s as a reaction to scientific determinism – failed to include human decision making, not everyone is rational o Behavioral  Focused on decision making, on human behavior but in a ‘model like way … still seeking a set of generalization o Humanistic  Deeply subjective and complex relationships between individuals and groups, and the places the exist  Techniques drawn from the Humanities e.g. use of film, writing, paintings, etc. (how is the city represented in art work , and what does that tell you about the relationships people may have in the urban area ) Structuralism  Broad approach in the social sciences  Importance of social, economic and political structures in society  Derived from the writing of Marx  Approach was dominant in the 1970s and beyond mainly in response to social problems emerging in urban areas (esp. in the US)  Criticized because of the emphasis on “class” –viewed as too limiting (people are actually organized on cultural background, social lines, sexual orientation … so looking at only class isn’t enough) Postmodernism  Emerged in the late 8os and early 90s  Approach the rejects notion that one perspective should hold sway 
More Less

Related notes for GGR252H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.