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GGR252 Lecture 3

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Stephen Swales

January 21, 2014 GGR252 Lecture 3  Retail typology o Classified by location, specialization, type of retail, demographic group, shape, design, etc. o Retail strips o Shopping centres (malls)  Enclosed entity  Market orientation is middle income, single attachment properties  Highly accessible  Highly visible  Major intersections of highways  Shoe stores dispersed to generate more traffic within the mall and to create more exposure to the stores throughout the mall, except food stores  Food stores do not mix with other uses  Food stores can act as a generative element throughout the mall  Recreation and shopping go together  Shopping generates traffic for the recreational component  Recreation generates traffic for the shopping component  Eaton Centre is an atypical shopping mall o Ancillary retail  Retailing in some other predominant land use, which isn't retailing, to take advantage of a potential captive market (e.g., basements of office towers, condos, airport)  PATH  Always expanding  Connected to the Eaton Centre o Power retailing (big boxes, category killers, power centres, power nodes)  High accessibility  Exclusively accessible by private transportation  Not enclosed  Each store has an independent access  No pretext about duplicating the traditional shopping mall experience o Online retailing  Fastest growing type of retailing, but not the biggest  Unlikely to replace traditional, physical retailing  People prefer to go to stores and shop in person  May often combine (e.g., research online, pick up in store)  Used in addition to supplement traditional shopping  Distribution of Home Depot patrons o Pattern of homes of customers relative to the store  Distance decay  Clustered patterned relative to the store o Anomalies in the immediate vicinity with no customers (non-residential; commercial or industrial zone) o Anomalies in the distant area travel so far that they are passing over intervening opportunities o How did they create the map of home addresses?  Recorded the license plates in the parking lot  Went to the Ontario Ministry of Transportation to get the postal codes  Postal codes  Confidential  Accurate enough  Shared with neighbours  Faster to give  Unique  Basic spatial concepts o Distance decay  Describes a pattern, which is explained by the disincentive nature of distance o Disincentive nature of distance / friction of distance  There is a disincentive associated with distance  Explains the distance decay pattern  Costs in time and money to travel o Longer time becomes a disincentive o Longer time and money becomes a cost  Measure distance in time to travel  Similar distances can take different amounts of time to travel across  TTC  Attempts to make the travel surface uniform  Same cost in terms money  Not the same cost in terms of time  More effort, time, and cost to travel long distances than short distances o Relates to disincentive nature of distance (and range) o There is a disincentive nature related to traveling distances o The greater the distance, then the greater the cost in time and money (e.g., economic disincentive) o Intervening opportunities o Range  There is a point where the location is so far that there is no interaction at all  The point at which interaction falls to zero because of increased distance effects o Gravity models  The greater the mass, then the greater the attraction o Diffusion  The spread of things (e.g., h
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