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Quality Lecture Notes (First Month)

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Stephen Swales

GGR 252 Marketing Geography Week 1 – Introduction Introductory Initiation to the Class Hypothetically, if you were trying to bypass a city such as Toronto, you would find the land uses primarily dominated by retail markets/shopping malls – close to the highways 1. Looking for accessibility and visibility – residential there are barriers 1. Where there are commercial areas – we have open In modern day society, we place infrastructure with some form of planning as a backbone 2. To an extent planning governs the location of these particular infrastructures 1. Back in the day, we could have placed them more or less anywhere and gotten away with it Looking at a big city, hospitals are placed centrally, but not all – there is a mix of specialized and generalized hospitals 3. In suburbs, hospitals are placed (generalized vs. specialized) to serve the greater population 1. Why are they so different – city vs. suburban – central location in the city are most accessible to a large number of people 1. Therefore, they are placed downtown to service the greatest number of people 4. Between a hospital and a marketing chain in a mall, the fundamental difference is that the marketing chain strives for profits with no obligation to the public 5. Service is not equal for the public The concept of an externality can be viewed as either positive or negative – living next to a fire station may be “beneficial,” but realistically how often will you have a fire? 6. You then have to suffer the firetruck’s sirens day and night There was always a social/cultural aspect to shopping which to some it may seem enjoyable to “window shop” – a recent concept introduced to society Environmental Determinism – the environment to some degree determines human activity – 7. For instance the cold weather outside left empty seats in the class ______________________________________________________________________ ________ Definitions Marketing – how to best reach the consumers of goods and services Marketing Geography – how to locate to best reach the consumers of goods and services… …BUT THERE’S MUCH MORE… G.I.S – a method that allows an individual to make informed decisions about locations 8. Supply and demand plays a fundamental role – you can’t have supply without demand – supply has an immense ability to determine demand 1. Relative to consumers (location) is important to better appeal to consumers GGR 252 Marketing Geography Why do most restaurants fail within a few short years? 9. Lack of customers due to location – there are many other reasons, of course, but more often than not, the target audience is not met 10.Restaurant chains such as McDonald’s do not fail because if they close down, they are “relocating” 1. If they are failing, they do not tell the public, and it can be hard for us to depict 1. A retail chain in Ontario is defined as 4 or more stores under the same owner and/or management 1. What is the difference between an independent or retail chain – the vast majority of stores are just single 1. It can still be considered independent up to 3 stores We tend to measure distances with respect to time, because 5km travelling a particular route can vary (with respect to time) from another route totaling 5km 11.Relative Distance – as opposed to pure linear distance Snow’s Study of Cholera Households There is a concentration of dots in one area, as opposed to being random 12.He determines this pattern upon collecting the data and mapping it 1. Geographers create maps for the purpose of spatial “awareness” He went one step further and generated a hypothesis 13.The infamous “Broad Street Pump,” where the dots are clustered 1. You go to the nearest water pump and get your water there; he got this hypothesis that something is wrong with that water pump by mapping 1. He had no scientific expertise to determine whether the water was contaminated 1. There are anomalies – in the sense that there are some dots that are far from the “Broad Street Pump” and we have to be able to account for those 1. That is known as distance decay, where the further away, the less likely there is for interaction with that pump 2. There are some gaps where there are no deaths along Broad Street 2. If he can’t account for those, then his confidence level drops for conclusion Week 2 Introduction to Class • We take into consideration the human attributes in conjunction with physical attributes o There are evident signs of climate as the visual example provided by the professor of Venice where he took some students on a field trip GGR 252 Marketing Geography  He got off the train with them and explained climate change – the obvious reason was the rising water levels (a concern for communities such as those in Venice) o If the ice cap over Greenland melts, then the sea level will definitely rise  Not the only reason, of course • Concept of mobility and level of mobility for goods and services; strategic • Church or cathedral is the dominant infrastructure in medieval societies o Distinctive landscapes • Location analysis o Where we find retail markets, hospitals, etc.  Power centers are likely to be found within suburban locations/centers • Typically not connected o Accessibility via transportation of roads, railroads, etc.  Allows for mobility within cities o The big question, “Where do we put them (facilities, infrastructures, etc.…) next?” o Retails in another dominant building it is considered an ancillary retail  Retail locations are highly dependent on mobility for accessibility • Typically placed in middle/high income neighborhoods or communities • The concept of intervening opportunities; placing a shopping mall between the target audience and the intended destination which could be downtown for argument’s sake o In a city like Toronto, you can find 100,000 people at one time shopping, and they are typically not coming from home to go shopping – but from work • The river in Montreal would increase the distance you have to drive, therefore the small circles will tend to cluster around the closest large circle o According to the visual example provided in class (Clients of Storage Facilities) • CMA – Census Metropolitan Area (large area) o To be considered a CMA, must have at least 100,000 people  Toronto is the largest in Canada o Being part of the CMA has people commuting into the city of Toronto, thus making it a functional CMA o Subdivisions of the CMA of Toronto  Basic building block is census tracts • StatsCan uses them for disseminating the basics  Population density is greater in downtown areas thus making smaller units for census tracts as opposed to suburban areas • Gravity concept – although shoplifters gravitate locally, they can come from other parts as well GGR 252 Marketing Geography o The closer they are in lower income neighborhoods, then the higher the chances • Postal code is very handy and resourceful from the aspect that it’s unique Different Types of Retail (Retail Typology) • Retail strips o Narrow front with narrow access, and as tall as possible  Frontage is expensive • Shopping Centers (Malls) o You don’t get a cluster of a particular retail place (i.e. shoe store), which allows for generation of traffic o Minimum number of exits to allow you to leave; they don’t want you to go anywhere • Ancillary Retail o In some other predominant land use – shopping in an airport; for example  Main goal is to manage airplanes (in the example shown in class) • Power Retailing (Big boxes, category killers, Power Centers, Power Nodes) Week 3 Patterns We Are Seeing • If we look downtown, at the pathways connecting complexes throughout, underground o We are able to see it being pretty costly, but yet very beneficial  And if you have land use with shopping stores, then there is enormous amounts of retail happening via the pathways, due to accessibility • The fastest growing type of retailing is online retailing o People much prefer to spend time online researching, having the information readily available at the palm of their hands  Most people just use it as a supplement to traditional shopping o Not the biggest, but the fastest growing  Unlikely that it would replace the physical shopping • With the typology it’s hard to make all facilities inclusive, as they can be combinations of multiple typologies o E.g. “Shops at Don Mills” – considered a shopping center and retail strip • In the example showed in class with the distribution of “Home Depot Patrons” o The further away from the near cluster of patrons visiting the Home Depot we have distance decay GGR 252 Marketing Geography  But there were two anomalies in that example with the gap in the immediate cluster and why people travelled a long distance would have dealt with intervening opportunities • However, all retail chains are designed to look more or less identical to avoid having people travelling 20km to a particular location Basic Spatial Concepts • Distance decay • Disincentive nature of distance/friction of distance o The greater the cost of money and time, the greater the disincentive • Intervening opportunities • Range o The closest down to the farthest reach wherein, we reach the point of no- touch, that is the range • Gravity models • Diffusion o The knowledge the professor is giving off to us, it stays with him, but comes to us The market is dynamic, as it is in constant change. Nothing will remain the same, because nor do we, since the guaranteed result of everybody attending class, for instance, is people getting older as time goes on. Target Marketing – Geographically • Not just who they are but where they are • Why target market? o Less effort for more return Changing Mobility • Implications • Retail strategies Ideally people should be equally serviced, but that is impossible, yet public sectors such as police, fire department, etc. do the best they can to service those in need as best as humanly possible. • A place Shoppers Drug Mart will not try to do that, they will try to get the biggest return for the least effort and that is dependent upon GEOGRAPHY Geography of Market/Demand
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