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GGR254 Manufacturing Belt, Industrialization

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Patrick Vitale

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Manufacturing Belt, Deindustrialization and the Spatial Fix David Harvey's Spatial Fix - Harvey's career goal is to understand the relationship between capitalism and geography - The production of space and investments in the built environment are a key part of the wider process of capital accumulation - capitalism can't survive without investing in the built environment - Marxist approach Surplus Value - increasing productivity and increasing the workday increases surplus value - capitalism is crisis-prone and unstable - produced competition between different capitalists - falling rate of profit - overproduction of commodities - surplus capital - surplus labour - state plays central role in stopping these crises from developing Capitalists seek a competitive advantage in investing in space - monopolistic power over space - regional systems of production - build alliances - systems of production are embedded in regions Three circuits of accumulation - Primary - capitalist ideals money > commodity > production > more money - Secondary - flow of capital into the fixed asset fund - Tertiary - investment in social programs, science, technology Temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal fixes - over accumulation of surplus value sitting in a certain place - fixes developed in order to get the capital circulation - temporal fix - long term investments - spatial fix - opening new markets or investing in land - spatio-temporal fixes are the combination of spatial and temporal fix - investment in built environment is a way to eliminate crises a) fixed as a solution to the problem of a pool of capital b) fixed in space - cannot physically move ** Only short or medium term solutions (i.e. factories beating other factories thus making original factories obsolete) Gary, IN - steel mill and town built as spatial fix - US steel needs to re-invest money made and leave Pittsburgh and build a plant on Great Lakes - the factory is a spatio-temporal fix for steel - invests in reproduction of labour - offers a system of paternalistic control as well as a system of coercive control - capital invested in luxury goods, social expenditures and science and technology Investment in the built environment: - lasts a long time - hard to change - cannot move - often the result of one large investment - often used in common Fixity leads to crises - "crowning glory" of capital - allows capitalism to prosper - "prison" of capital - fixed in space and cannot grow Spatial fix solves crises by investing in the environment but works to destroy old spatial fixes with the new spatial fixes Manufacturing Belt - stretches from New England to Minneapolis/St. Paul - as of 1919 it represents 75% of American manufacturing - urbanization and industrialization have a circular relationship - urbanization is an industrial process 1. market development produces further and further levels of industrialization 2. multipliers develop - industrialization produces more industrialization 3. cities share a labour supply with other cities 4. cities offer access to other infrastructure and to markets Characteristics of Manufacturing Belt - filled with largeAmerican cities - large amount of immigration to it - power is concentrated Continued concentration of capital - fixed assets allowed more power and concentration of capital Regional Markets - began on east coast and followed the Frontier west to the USA - large productive rural areas located around the areas on the east coast - hinterlands created markets for manufacturers - cities were themselves their own markets - urban areas are not self-sufficient Urban Infrastructure - early industries involved in the process of building the city itself Processing - forward and backward linkages - i.e. building barrels from timber, liquids can then be shipped in barrels - industries produce other industries In
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