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GGR270 Lecture #2 Sept. 19 2012.pdf

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Damian Dupuy

GGR270 Lecture 2September 19 2012 Variables and Data VariableCharacteristic of the population that changes or varies over time Examples Temperature income education etc o Anything you can measure o Observe and measure themo Two key categoriesQuantitativenumerical eg Number of students whoDiscrete 1234 or continuous 15 276 34QualitativeNonnumerical eg Malefemale plant species Data always plural datumsingular o Results from measuring variablesset of measurementso Different categoriesUnivariate 1 variableBivariate 2 variables Multivariate whole bunch of variablesVariablesScales of measurement 1 Scale defines amount of information a variable contains and what statistical techniques can be usedFour scales Nominal Ordinal Interval and Ratio o Nominalleast amount of informationo Ordinalo Interval o Ratiohighest amount of informationThe more information you have you can push it together to turn it into Nominal but you cant turn Nominal into Ratio etc You measure at Ratio scale Nominal o Lowest scale of measurement no numerical value attached o Classifies observations into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive groups every observation must be able to fit into a category each category much be mutually exclusive o Simple name or category of the variable o Often called categorical dataEg occupation type gender place of birthOrdinal o Stronger scale as it allows data to be ordered or ranked Eg 12 largest towns in a region income by group low middle highInterval o Unit distance separating numbers is importantEg Temperature F or C taxable income
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