GGR270HAnalytical Methods
(Basic Info)
Tutorial: postponed to next week (every week there is a tutorial)
Exam: 1 page both sides of cheat sheet allowed (there is no mathematical questions, it is
based on discussing the topics, discussing the measures, more essay concept oriented
questions)
Example Essay Questions: why would you use on measure over another? What is the
difference between a population and a sample? And give examples. Demonstrate how you
would approach problems. Why is it necessary to use a sample than a population?
Assignment 1: distributed (assignments are the only math you do in the class) you have to
defend your methodology in Assignments.
(Lecture 2)
Variables and Data
Any information yielded in to a small subset we can apply it to a bigger population
(Variable)
Variable means something that varies. It is a characteristics of the population that
changes or varies over time (fundamental issues, spatial issues etc)
Income distribution, economic value, the distribution of rock types, toxic pollutants
(how are they varied and how are they varied based on spatial locations)
Examples of variable: temperature, income, education etc.
Anything we can measure or change over time can be considered a variable.
Variables are the basis of what we actually measure (ex. Measuring income levels,
measuring test scores etc)
*We observe and measure variables, although we can observe and measure them, we
need to do it in different ways and we do them based on the categories of variable
that we have
There are 2 key categories of variable (used to define the types of variables that we
have:
(Quantitative)
means numerical variables, we can measure them by using numbers (ex.
What score did you get on the exam? How many years of education did you
have?)
Discrete quantitative variables, whole numbers (1,2,3,4,…) or continuous
quantitative variables, decimals (1.5, 2.7…)
(Qualitative)
Means non numerical, (ex. Male/ female, plant species)
Sometimes a qualitative variable can be assigned value of quantitative
variable (ex. we can count the number of males or females)
(Data)
Data is always a plural form because there is more than one observation
Data are results from measuring variables: set of measurements yields the set of data
(ex. students income)
Different Categories of Data:
Univariate: means measuring one variable (ex. Measuring income of students
is a univariate set of data)
Bivariate: measuring two variables and for se

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