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GGR320H1 (5)

Moiz Dar

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University of Toronto St. George
Rachel Silvey

GGR320: TRANSNATIONALISM, DIASPORA AND GENDER STUDIES LECTURE I Causes & Consequences of Migration Trafficking – Mahdavl: humans are a commodity as clothing or other goods are bought and sold - globalization has dissolved nation-state borders thus there has been a growth of crime syndicates - European Union: people are allowed to cross border without detection o Eastern Europe: post-Berlin wall  fall of soviet empire 1989: creation of markets in organized crime realm Truckstop: women and children are enslaved and trafficked even in Toronto “Truckstop”: makes truckers the actors in spotting and denying human trafficking - Increased ease of travel of borders has not correlated with rise of rights for undocumented workers. Thus it is difficult for the victims to seek refuge. - Increased strictness against trafficking takes women out of entertainment industry and into marriage industry so they can become documented. - Creates fewer chances for autonomy and volition Demography and Migration - migration affects birth/death rates along with economy - hard to study migration: o different scales (provinces, nations?, how long must one spend in different areas to migrate), migrants could be temporary foreign workers (ex. SAWP) o very political, about identity which can become controversial and widely debated (not empirically based) o most ‘migration’ data isn’t actually data  invisible foreigners?  defined by: 6 months and cross a nation-state boundary Netherlands and Migration - have anti-immigrant sentiment, although foreign populations growing Migration as an Excluded Topic - eurocentrism of demography makes demography intrinsically anti-immigrant and is against diversity th o little migration between wealthy states between 15 century and late 20 century Migration Theory - no single theory for a diverse phenomenon - Equilibrium Models o Largely economists: based on wage differentials. People move due to changes in supply and demand for labour and capital o Variables: Costs of living, household investments, - World Systems Theory o Differences between nations historically, connected to global inequality o 3 World systems theorists: Wallerstein (sociologist) , David Harvey, Saskia Sassen (sociologist) o Must look at regional scales o Segmented or ‘Dual’ Labour Market o Must look at inequalities between cities within a nation-state o Higher income workers rely on lower income workers for the production of their wealth (revisit urbanization notes?) - Social Networks (families etc) o Cumulative causation: accumulation of people moving to one place, operates as a cyclical additive process o Non-economic movement (people moving for family members or contact with loved ones) Migration is a heterogeneous process with many causes/consequences. - many push/pull factors: population pressures, environmental change, labour demand, opportunities for betterment, population aging, crime, policies o aging populations can pull workers who can care for elders Types of Migration - past: invasion, colonization mass movements to empty lands ‘volkerwanderung’ - labour migration ‘guestworkers’, work permits, intracompany transfers - student - ‘chain migration’ family reunification - Return migration and repatriation - Refugee and asylum - Undocumented/irregular immigration and overstaying Workers, family reunification and refugees take up different portions depending on the country - US has high level of family reunification, Sweden has low level of temporary foreign workers (due to policy) - Fewer people granted asylum in ‘fortress europe’ - Workers can include expats and temporary foreign workers (two other sides of spectrum) - General trend that people are granted temporary work permits but not allowed citizenship o Notions of entitlements and rights carry over to citizenship policies Facilitating Factors - Uneven progress of demographic transition - fertility vs death rate affected - migration prompted through family size (high family size means more children sent out to care for dependents) - Political/Historical connections - Revolutions in transport, information and rights - access to knowledge about jobs via the internet - global push towards human rights in un - State policies: passport ability (to get passport) - The migration industry and trafficking - recruitment/marketing of migrant workers, temporary work programs, - international development organizations: exporting expats to developing areas of need - any goods sold or shipped to or by migrants - recruitment of creative class and innovators o researchers on migration - children born into us and made citizens are considered immigrants* - migrations in 2000s fell due to tightening of borders as a result of 9/11 - collapse of soviet union increased immigration in US - late 90s NAFTA led to increased securitization of border SASKIA SASSEN - global migration needs to be understood within countries in relation to shifting global migration patterns - migration now a primary driver of population in low tfr countries, but now in far east, some cee and fsu. - as capital accumulates in cities and people are outsourced to rural parts of the world –is affected by intra and international population mobility o does not solve aging populations o second demographic transition model: caregivers migrate to developed regions o can result in third demographic transition model: elderly people moving to regions where they can afford care  ex Japanese people moving to Thailand. LECTURE III: Paradoxes of Migration Control & Theories of Migration Review: - Conflicfiting role of nation-state as facilitator and enforcer - “the state” (immigration, police etc) – an abstraction, mythic, disembodied force – an idea of power - Response: do ethnographies of the state; look at everyday practices and construction of identities. o Representatives of state will have varying opinions of their role - For the state: undocumented migrants provide inexpensive fulfillment of gaps in labor market with little expectation of rights or social benefits Ex. Debate: two state figureheads debating as how the state will manage finances, health care, etc Themes: - undocumented immigrants labelled and discriminated against in media in racialized terms o made to seem less human than legal citizens o metaphor of invasion, illegitimate, other o thus, lower wages is legitimized in labour market - states use ironic/inconsistent philosophy of the border to their advantage - Canadian has transnational image (humanitarian) but is not in practice not always so - Identification of migrants as criminals in often used to justify enforcement stance o Worth asking what laws they are breaking (most just want to work to support family) o “no one is illegal” - Fujinese immigrants: Canada sought a very public deterrence of these migrants – to underscore its policy of “bringing the best people through the front doors” and to highlight the closing of the nation’s “backdoor” to “others” - The state does not exist outside of the people who compromi
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