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Week 7 - New Urbanism.docx

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Deborah Leslie

New Urbanism Nov 4, 2013  Subject to earlier critiques of utopianism  Spatial determinism  Engels: need to change material conditions The romance of ‘community’  New urbanism accepts the ideal of ‘community’ as it philosophical foundation  Community- an alternative to the isolation… check PowerPoint  Community defined by:  A) a web of affect-laden relationships among individuals  B) commitment to a set of shared values, norms, and meanings and a shared history and identity.  An idealized, often romanticized, imagined space of kinship and unity between otherwise heterogeneous groups.  A political scale of shared commitments to morals, norms, and the public good.  ‘Community’ is not without tis critics.  The discursive invocation of community has truth-effects (Foucault): its use as a political frame has impacts on lives, landscapes and livelihoods.  Iris Marion Young (1990) reveals the violence of ‘community’. That you always conclude and exclude some people and always defining who can be apart and who can’t.  It is used to signify a “whole”, to efface internal differences, to create boundaries between self and other, and to construct an imagined sharing of ways of being in the world.  Community is a key site of social control and surveillance.  Deconstruct community’s all-to-easy association with romantic notions of belonging and its ability to obscure the exclusionary social constriction of groups.  Community as a “myth”, or imagined/ romance and fiction, it is something created or made.  The “myth of community’ or what Miranda Joseph (2002) calls the “romance of community”.  “Community” acts to reinforce boundaries in ways that actually justify and naturalize difference, exclude people from benefits of belonging.  Government now look to “community” as a solution to problems of anomie, crime, and stagnant economies.  E.g. community policing, we target neighborhood and saw problem that’s related to crime. Community and economic development. Again, before the city was developed for economics, increasing breaking the big city and develop them into different economic plans for neighborhood. Getting the habitant and people to live in there to create the community. Establishing partnership, this language of community is everywhere. Then why are we turning to “community”?  Because community is seeing as a more intimate local scale, involving face to face relations, interpersonal trust, collaboration.  Nikolas Rose Powers of Freedom (1999) – growing emphasis on community governance in an era of neoliberalism. To look after their citizen, target as the city as a whole, we see massive of cutback, turning into the neoliberal role.  Adopted as a tool for invoking social responsibility and public involvement. The individual need to take responsibility with his or her own crime and community. Increasing emphasis on the third wave of governing.  He refers to this as a third way of governing, between the authority of the state, the free and amoral exchange of the market with the liberty of autonomous rights bearing individuals. Community is governing themselves. City is becoming fragmented; each is governing themselves in increasing rate. They make decisions and infrastructure themselves.  A response to cutbacks in Keynesian welfare state  ‘Active citizen’. They will look after themselves and being responsible within their neighborhood.  Social capital: the aggregate of actual or potential resources linked to the possession of a durable network of relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition (Bourdieu).  Putnam (2000) social connections, reciprocity, trust, neighborhood watching.  Most studies find that new urban communities have higher level of social capital than traditional suburbs.  Cabrera (2013) study of Arizona-new urban communities 50% more social capital.  But also found that this was due to the type of residents that selected this community in the first place (e.g. more social/ community minded). Is to foster greater social capital and increase the bond between inner neighborhoods. Community, exclusion and the new urbanism  The notions of community the new urbanism deploys are exclusionary  Claims to construct a truly democratic public sphere comprised  A) exclusionary in terms of race.  B) exclusionary in terms of class. o Affordable housing option, but do we see this on the ground. Vast majority of new urban projects are not affordable for the middle- income group. Only 15% is affordable.  Compared to Markham as a whole: Cornell high proportion high-income university graduates.  When they are included, low-income residents segregated.  Linked to class distinction  New middle class and professional class.  House part of symbolic capital-gives owners a sense of respectability, honour, difference.  New urbanism plays this role of establishing distinction for the massive new middle class.  Elite family environment  Differentiates new middle class from ordinary suburban residents  New class habitus  Classified into taste and certain ways for walking. The new urbanism is a new urban middle class habitus.  New urban interior aesthetics: Restoration hardware. The upper classes have always distinguished themselves from the poor. They suggest that they buy antiques. They always buy prestige or traditional type of products.  Harvey (2000): new ur
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