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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Lewis

th GGR341 Latin America Lecture 3, Jan 20 The Spanish Viceroyalty System - Spanish- religion, and natural extraction - Portuguese – economic trade - New Spain – Mexico - Brazil – slaves, sugarcane, - High concentration of land Forms of Land tenure - Encomienda: quasi-feudal system, Indigenous communities were forced to give Spaniards their land for protection, religion (Catholicism), and language - Indigenous people rapidly decrease - *Mita: Mandatory public service that existed in the Incan Empire as a form of tribute to the ruling king by which each community had to offer some hours of work in mines - The Spaniards turned it into permanent forced labour - Haciendas: Large land holdings, minding or agriculture - Plantations: Production of a single crop for global market slave workforce, replaced subsistence agriculture threatening local food security - Estancias: cattle and sheep ranches – Southern part – Chile, Argentina - A lot of land concentration, and exploitation - Consenquences: didn’t invest on infrastructure, manufacturing – everything was based on resource extraction, transportation and communication were poor – Consequences of the colonial rule and Forms of land tenure - Didn’t create manufacturing infrastructure - Poor roads, little infrastructure - Installed racist policies and beliefs, superiority of whiteness; hierarchical system where criollos (children of Spaniards) loose their parents’ rights. - Acute Socio-spatial inequality Independence (1814-1823) - Haiti first in 1804 - Children of Spaniards are not allowed to rule - Goal was for Criollos to rule themselves - Simon Bolivar liberates Andean countries and creates The Great Colombia 1830 - General San Martin liberates countries of the Southern cone - Expectation was to change - Little has changed – same type of land tenure, system – a lot of indigenous people sited it was better in the sense that there was protection and free trade with Europeans - Dominated by the same power, at the central level, little autonomy for regional levels Battle Lines - Territories refined - Mexico vs USA – redefined by annexation of TEXAS - Wars in the South cone – Bolivia lost access to the sea, Paraguay – no access to the sea – these are the poorest U.S. Neocolonialism - The Monroe Doctrine (1823) – statement of reaffirming Latin America region would not have any more of European powers to have colonial projects over their region - ‘anti-colonialism’ Monroe Doctrine: Moral or Economic Grounds? - Foundation of international affairs - Anti-colonialism aspects - They are not
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