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David Miller

GGR360- Culture, History and Landscape Lewis reading 1) Physical Landscape 2) Knowledge and Perception 3) Ambitions- order-ing of space- what happens where- how does government regulate that 4) Cultural Strictures- taste- tasteful Christmas dcor- 5) Tools to Shape- technologies- Sauer and the morphology of landscape- ploughs- social control shapes the landscape This gave way to the cultural landscape a. collection of artifacts b. types of landscapes c. landscapes as a whole With regards to assignment 1- a. Look b. Record c. Organize them- themes d. Write it Assignment 2- The History of Science as it relates to Landscape How science was developed Science is socially constructed and produced It is influenced by individuals (Donna Haraway talking about situated positionality- knowledge), technology (Bruno Latour- in the lab tech influenced the way that experiements were run and how we understood the world- the objects themselves have the agency to act back during an experiment, and society (Kuhn- the community of Science believe in a certain paradigm- a scientific community/ society Well how does this relate to the Social Sciences? o Geography and geomorphology- natural sciences o Social science combines the interest in science with a more socio- cultural objective investigation o What geography intend to do was unite the social with the science- i.e regional science- about studying places- looking at the physical environment and the cultural things that act to form the cultural landscape- society and the environment, social nature, human and environment GGR360- Culture, History and Landscape As humans become more curious we find different ways to analyze things- it also depends the framework that it is involved What is Landscape? Lewis calls the practical discussion o that segment of the earth which lies between the viewers eye and his or her horizon well, segment has to be a surface because it has to exist in three-dimensional space the space between your eye and the horizon- the social space so to speak What is Landscape- not? It is not nature- nature exists in the landscape It is not scenery- its not just what you see, its not always pretty, and it exists in a social space not just an exterior space It is not environment- because landscape s require humans It is not place- place refers to a discrete location that we can name History of Landscape Landscape as a real entity= land o Older- Sauer 1925- Landscapes symbolic and material- i.e the license plat picture o Newer idea- 1988- o The idea that the symbolic is just as important with regards to change over space and time Environmental Determinism (1930s) the environment influences the people and their behavior- i.e. the tropics make people act revved up- cold temperatures make people more subdued and calm- humans are like plants, if you put them in soil they will grow (British- American- Canadian view) Landschaftkundle 19 century - German tradition o Looking at the Earth lets you know something about society Complete reversal- culture over nture o Environmental Determinism couldnt explain variations over space o Colonial/ empire mentality dating Carl Ortwin Sauer 1889-1975 o Field-work o For Sauer- geography was landscape study A deviation of cultural area from natural areas Morphology pf Landscape (1925) Societies re-shape earth through food cultivation- shelter (deforestation) Change over time GGR360- Culture, History and Landscape JB Jackson (1910-1989) o Person in the landscape - and even the individual- participants in the landscape o Vernacular landscapes- local styles and materials- architecture- common things/material i.e. bricks- but it also comes down to style o Urban-periurban landscapes- streets- ordinary landscapes o Political aspect Similarities between Jackson and Sauer 1. Landscapes are practical- they are made through practice- people create them 2. Observers, direct prose, not overly theoretical 3. Looking at landscape from point of view of ordinary citizen Differences between Jackson and Sauer 1. Jackson- contemporary- 2. Jackson was not an academic- so he could write outside the academic box 3. Jackson took the step towards the symbolic Geomorphology What processes can happen? Glaciation, migration, colonialism, industrialization Pre-existing conditions- bedrock- some cases it could be colonialism- Looking and Intuiting Wednesday, February 9, 2011 Richard Scheins The Place of Landscape: A conceptual Framework for Interpreting an American Scene Playgrounds as ordinary landscapes Summary GGR360- Culture, History and Landscape Richard Scheins The Place of Landscape: A conceptual Framework for Interpreting an American Scene The basis of scheins article is that he is responding to the old literature- Saurian idea of the morphology of landscape, landscape plus culture He contrasts the old landscape to the new landscape- new Hosgrove and Daniels- Meing- See landscape as a tangible, visible entity, one that is both reflective (represents something else) and constitutive of society (and it creates culture), culture and identity 660 it is reciprocal- the most modern take His case study- Look at Ashland Park, a suburb of Lexington, Kentucky, which is also the authors home- he teaches at the university- he knows the neighborhood- use of primary documents to inform the study- he is so embedded in the research- we understand that this is a really thick description of this suburb Genealogy of Landscape o Traces the history of the term: what it did and how it was done From cultural spoor through an unwitting autobiography reflecting American culture to the discursive place of landscape in dynamic socio-spatial relationship with the very individuals and societies that create it in the first place drawing on Foucault and his concept of genealogy- Genealogy is gray, meticulous, and patiently documentary. It operates on a field of entangled and confusing parchments, on documents that have been scratched over and recopied many times. (Foucault, 1977; 139) o Similar to palimpsest- a complicated document Foucaults genealogy o Unlike a regular genealogies of families (e.g. Foucaults was a genealogy of values o He paid more attention to the discontinuities, vicissitudes, instabilities and accidents than to origins or constancies- these moments of shift between modes of governance as the most important part of the whole story- it wasnt why they stayed the same, it was why they changed
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