Jan 16 - German National Identity
-Anti French sentiments went back to the 18th Century as a linking German
-As of the French Revolution in 1789 writers such as Hegel support it and are
--As of the Terror, German hesitation increases towards political change. Change
should occur via reform not revolution is a rising thought. -Napoleon's legacies in Germany were Anti-French sentiments and a strong
sense of national self-determination.
• 1813 Volkerschlacht at Leipzig (battle of the people) - Napoleon is
defeated by Germans. He retreats but leaves behind a growing sense of
• Post-Napoleon Germans have two choices: adopt French model or create
a German model.
1814/1815 - Weiner Kongress "Restauration" - Restriction of freedoms,
roll back in rights. This leads to unrest by those who wanted to follow
-After 1814-15, German writers begin to write in favour of German change:
"pre-March"/Vormaire ( as in pre-1848. Duration 1814-1848)
National self-determination and liberal rights were seen as closely linked.
Contrasted with former styles of rule pre-19th century that denied rights such as
freedom of speech.
Pressures for national self-determination/national united
• Students formed groups throughout Germany and met in political
assembly. (In 1817 they met at Wartburg fest, Wartburg being where
Luther highly influentially translated the bible from Latin into German.
Celebrated as the creator of German language. Celebration of Luther
excludes those who aren't Protestant). At Wartburgfest students burned
books of authors they thought not national enough
• Students supported the German flag and it became a symbol of unity
• --Shakespearean theatre, Gothic architecture appealed to Germans in
opposition to French culture.
- Taxes had not been a problem locally, but with rail introduced paying taxes at
border after border became a burden. Tax unity became more pressing than
national unification. Mirroring the EU.
3 understandings of