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Jan 16 - German National Identity.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

Jan 16 - German National Identity January-09-12 11:03 AM -Anti French sentiments went back to the 18th Century as a linking German nationalist sentiment. -As of the French Revolution in 1789 writers such as Hegel support it and are enthusiastic. --As of the Terror, German hesitation increases towards political change. Change should occur via reform not revolution is a rising thought. -Napoleon's legacies in Germany were Anti-French sentiments and a strong sense of national self-determination. • 1813 Volkerschlacht at Leipzig (battle of the people) - Napoleon is defeated by Germans. He retreats but leaves behind a growing sense of German self-confidence. • Post-Napoleon Germans have two choices: adopt French model or create a German model. 1814/1815 - Weiner Kongress "Restauration" - Restriction of freedoms, roll back in rights. This leads to unrest by those who wanted to follow French democracy. -After 1814-15, German writers begin to write in favour of German change: "pre-March"/Vormaire ( as in pre-1848. Duration 1814-1848) National self-determination and liberal rights were seen as closely linked. Contrasted with former styles of rule pre-19th century that denied rights such as freedom of speech. Pressures for national self-determination/national united 1.) Ideological • Students formed groups throughout Germany and met in political assembly. (In 1817 they met at Wartburg fest, Wartburg being where Luther highly influentially translated the bible from Latin into German. Celebrated as the creator of German language. Celebration of Luther excludes those who aren't Protestant). At Wartburgfest students burned books of authors they thought not national enough • Students supported the German flag and it became a symbol of unity • --Shakespearean theatre, Gothic architecture appealed to Germans in opposition to French culture. 2.) Economical - Taxes had not been a problem locally, but with rail introduced paying taxes at border after border became a burden. Tax unity became more pressing than national unification. Mirroring the EU. 3 understandings of
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