To know by heart a whole gazeteerfull of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this to trace out the great laws of nature and to mark their influence upon man[sic]. In a word, geography is a science, a thing not of mere names, but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. (william hughes, 1863) Evolution of geography navigation, exploration, and conquest environmental determinism and possibilism the quantitative revolution . Studying places uniqueness of place importance of place to experience interdependence of places, scale (ex. global vs. local) places provide structure (context; opportunities and constraints) Human geography social, cultural, historical, urban, economic, industrial, medical/health, etc. Environmental geography awareness and study of both physical and social phenomena. Regional geography focus on a specific area or region.