Lecture 3

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10 Feb 2013
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Lecture 3
French Bastides
Role of the Church being a dominant structure in the medieval city
They were very small fortified city
Industrial and Post- Industrial Urbanization
Most significant urbanization occurred after the industrial revolution
19th century cities were places of population concentrations
o Started to attract pop because they were offering jobs
Great Britain was the central of urbanization in the 1900s, the most
urbanized population
Cities then became more specialized as a result of market forces
North American Urbanization
Related to colonization by Spanish, French and English
o Earlisest settlements during Spanish occupation in south west eg.
Texas, Arizona , new Mexico , California
o English colonization began in 1565
o Dutch Established Fort Orange ( Albany) and New Amsterdam ( New
York ) in the 17th century trading posts
o Quebec founded by the French in 1608 followed by Montreal in 1620
o English colonization was the big one
Westward movement of pop. urbanization in the 19th century
Borcher (1967) identifies 4 key phases in the development of North
American urban system
Phases shaped size and location of cities , in addition to their internal
structure urban geographers want to understand the internal structure of
the city change and what has led to that change
Phases relate urban change to advances in technology , especially
Stage I (1970 1830) Frontier Mercantilism
1790 was first US census
most important urban places were Atlantic coast NYC, Philadelphia, Boston,
Cities were commercial centres
Little industry- some traditional crafts ( candle maker , shoe maker only
provided for the very small neighbourood, the provider often lived in that
True “ walking’ cities
o 2 or 3 square miles
o carried out there activities in their local area
Stage II (830-1870)- Early Industrial Capitalism
Steam Technology , esp. steamboat made trade possible
o Trade possible internally
Cities, inlands on rivers and lakes emerged Pittsburgh, New Orleans ,
o Allowed two way trading
Internal structure of cities changed
o Greater degree of specialization
o Cities become more sophisticated
Emergence of Central Business District (CBD) and defined waterfront
districts (where u have warehouses, industrial kind of land, slums (housing)
shelter emerging for people with low income)
Identification of ‘carriage suburbs’
o Far out in the city, where they were only accessible by carriage
o Only accessible to those who had money rich
o Farther they were up the social ladder the farther they were from the
central of the city because the CBD was full of crimes
o Rosedale was a carriage city
Stage III (1870 1930 ) National Industrial Capitalism
Continent fully urbanized Halifax to Los Angeles
Completion of the railroad in 1869 , golden spike in Utah
o Allowed for greater areas to be accesed
o Dominant transportation technology
New centres emerged ex. Seattle , Denver, Vancouver
Greater specialization among cities ( Miami emerged as a city for leisure )
Segregated land use instead of mixed use
o CBD in highest cost location
o Warehouses, Factories, housing in least desirable sites
Stage IV (1935- present ) Mature Industrial Capitalism
Capitalism is the dominant model, has matured
General process of de-concentration and suburbanization
Rail hubs lost to automobile and airplane
o Really drove the process of suburbanization this established the
process of the free-way
Emergence of Megalopolis
o BosWash- Boston to Washington
o San- San San Diego to San Francisco
o ChiPitts Chicago to Pittsburgh
o The Golden Horse Shoe Oshawa to Toronto to Markham to St.
The Urban System
The Urban System …
“ a set of geographically bounded cities that share a number of common
attributes , and that interact with each other to a more significant extent than
cities outside the system”
No City exists or grown in a vacuum linkages are a necessary condition to
have urban growth and functioning cities
Connections exist with other cities
o Dependency
o Competition property tax rates, competing for federal investment,
internal investment from manufacturing firms
o Transportation a road way , air transportation pub
Types of Urban Systems
Geographic scale
o International/ Global
o National
o Regional
o Production-Based ex. ipod being assembled in the US m, parts could
be coming in from china. Assembly of the blackberry, parts coming in
from all over the world
o Consumer Orientated
o Specialized Service
Evolution of Urban Systems
“Classic” (natural)
o Social surplus and agglomeration
“Colonial “ (man- made)
o External settlement selection
o System moves toward interior to exploit raw materials
o Eventually, system more functionally integrated and dependent,
resembles “classic” system
National Urban System
Most cities accommodate a variety of functions - manufacturing, residential
o Most areas provide the same array, but may specialize in cenrtian
Many suggested classification schemes:
o Amount of employment in a particular sector