Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
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Geography (500)
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Course Code
Deborah Cowen

of 2
Urbanization Lecture
October 11, 2011
Last Week
Post-industrial urban landscape
Industrial-Manufacturing to consumption places; ex. Include the
waterfront; they are spaces directed to pleasure and recreation
rather than industrial areas
High end services: FIRE [finance, insurance, real estate]
Ghettos and citadels
Racialized and gendered geographies of precarious work
Gentrification; good example is Greenwich Village in New York
Elite Enclaves and Citadels
A spatially concentrated area
Creation of elite space where there is nice landscape, good
quality housing and inhabited with people who have resources
Wealthy area where the people have kind of segregated
themselves from other people
Enclave: spatially concentrated area of a particular population
group defined by religion, ethnicity and people come together to
enhance their economic, social political and cultural
Segregated racialized poverty
Ex. South Bronx in the 1970’s
Urban Politics
Municipal government in Canada
Has a history in the British system
Is probably one of the most democratic levels of government
Were created to monitor and manage property and the process
of politics around property ownership
Canadian cities were founded through colonial processes
Cities have very little legal standing in the Constitution; little or
no say
Federal Role in Cities
Federal government has no direct legislative authority over cities
or barely any
But it is still significant such as fiscal policies, government
transfer policies, immigration policies or labour policies
What do Municipalities do?
Varies within provinces such as differences between Ontario and
Alberta or even within cities
Commonalities: regulation of property [planning], police, parks
and recreation, libraries, tourism, waste and recycling, local
roads, fire services, economic development, total land use
What is city planning?
Involves the attempt to guide the growth of the city with some
Urban Social Movements
Civil rights, feminist, LGBTQ, immigrant rights and environmental
movements as crucial to the political life but are often beyond
the bounds of formal government
Two different ways in which urban space can be political
oThe city as the site of movements [where things happen]
oUrban as a particular kind of movement [the focus of
political claims]
The politics of ‘Community’
Not only include inclusion but exclusion as well; a good example
of this is gated-communities. This is not always a bad thing but
can be
Communities distinguish themselves socially and spatially
Urbanism and Colonialism
Canadian definitions of community have kind of relied on a
colonial imaginary