Class Notes (1,200,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSG (50,000)
Geography (500)
GGR124H1 (200)

Collection of points covered in lecture

Course Code
Damian Dupuy

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GGR124 Lecture 2
Measuring Urban Places
x Urban areas can be defined based on their population
x Urban areas can also be described based on their economic activity (high agricultural sector, the
more rural the area)
x Population size is not the only acceptable method to measure an urban space
x Administrative definition: defining the urban area in terms of legal criteria such as jurisdictional
x However, the physical and social extent of the city can be beyond administrative definitions
x A functional definition uses urban influence to determine the links and connections between the
various elements of the urban areas
x Functional definition bring forth the use of census data (in this context Toronto extends all the
way to Mississauga)
x ÆuoWd}}v}[]v(vce reaches out to Halton, York, and Durham forming the GTA
x Urban geography focuses on the analysis of the distribution of towns and cities
x Urban geography takes into account the similarities and differences between and within cities or
x Spatial distribution of towns and cities is looking at the system of cities
x Internal structure compares the formation of the city itself; the city as its own system
x Urban geography can be applied to any other discipline
x Urban geography can be approached in different ways
x Environmental geography focuses on the relationship of a settlement and their interaction with
the environment
x Situational studies: study of how the physical characteristics determines urban development
x Urban morphology: how urban areas grow and change over time
x Examples: a trading post growing into a city.
x Positivism geography takes the approach that human behaviour is dictated by laws of science
that determine patterns and structures within the city
x Ecological development: ecosystems define the city; ecological principles shape the city
x Neo-classical defining the city based on economics determining social behaviour; cost
maximization and benefits maximization (rationality)
x Behavioural geography extends the positivist approach; this method focuses on peoples
decisions in a model
x Humanistic analysis looks at the subjective aspects of behaviour such as morals, group activity,
and the places within which they exist
x Structuralism takes into account the social, economic, and political structures within society
x The latter approach criticized due to its limitation to class views
x The postmodern approach incorporates all of the other schools of thoughts; its main influence is
within the effects of urban design and architecture
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