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GGR124H1 (200)
Lecture

Overview of all points covered in lecture


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR124H1
Professor
Damian Dupuy

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GGR 124: Lecture 3
Growth of Urban Spaces
x Early urban development was often the result of standard birth rates, making for smaller cities
x These areas had the necessary social surplus to grow
x Of the biggest of the ancient cities was Rome (1 million by 2 AD)
x In Greece, the mainland cities moved their conquest towards the Mediterranean
x These new Greek cities developed the gridiron pattern
x Roman cities made effective use of perimeter structure and cross streets
x European city growth came to a slowdown after the 5th-17th centuries due to a decrease in
spatial interaction after the fall of the Roman Empire
x Urban centres became isolated and paranoid
x Mercantilism emerges and isolation dissipates
x Mercantilism developed state controlled economies based on conquest and trade
x Capitalism reduced the role of the state transforming cities into industrial centres
x The most significant urban expansion occurred under the industrial revolution
x In the 19th century cities became the big centres of population
x Market specialisation became the key economic factor for the prosperity of urban centres
x North American urbanization was largely the result of colonial trade posts growing into urban
centres
x The greater part of North American urbanization was influenced by the British
x Quebec was founded in 1608 and Montreal in 1620 by the French
x Westward movement of colonization in the 19th century
x Borchert (1967) identifies 4 key phases of North American urbanisation; these phases shaped
the size and location of cities in addition to their urban structure
x Borcherts model is largely based on specific advances in technology, more specifically
transportation technology
x (Phase I) Frontier Mercantilism 1790-1830: first US census took into account where people were
living determining that the Atlantic cities were the key trading posts (NYC, Philadelphia, Boston,
Halifax; these commercial centres would turn into cities with little industry but plenty of natural
resources
x (Phase II) Early Industrial Capitalism 1830-1870: this period focused on the new steam
technology provided by the industrial revolution; cities on inland rivers emerged to trade with
the coastal cities; the internal structure of cities also changed thanks to new technologies with
the emergence of waterfront districts (harbours and shantytowns) and carriage suburbs (quality
residential)
x (Phase III) National Industrial Capitalism 1870-1930: the continent becomes fully urbanized from
Halifax to Los Angeles thanks to the completion of the railroad in 1869; this period sees the
emergence of new urban centre further in the west; cities develop more specialisation as
industrial centres, government centres, leisure centres, etc.; land use now becomes more
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