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GGR 124 lecture 5
Cities as centres of production
x Exam covers all course material up until end of this lecture
x Mid-term will contain multiple choice questions and short answer questions
x Primate city (city within a primate system): central city containing the majority of the regional
population
x Cities are often divided into sectors such as production, service, transportation, residential,
commercial, etc.
x One way to analyse a city is as a centre of manufacture and service delivery
x Why is there a functional specialization among cities in manufacturing activity?
x Why larger cities are more economically diversified than smaller cities?
x Why are some cities concentrations of corporate headquarters while others not?
x Manufacturing is one of the most important factors in urban growth; much of early urbanisation
is driven by manufacture
x Manufacture helps us define the development of urban systems and the emergence of
metropolises
x Manufacture also defines how city specialization occurs: a city specialises in one specific type o
manufacture; this in turn helps us define growth rates as a result of specialisation
x Manufacturing activity contributes to the growth of the labour market and the production of
usable goods for trade and city use
x Classifications of manufacturing space:
Components or types of goods (durable goods, non-durable goods)
Value-added: the addition of value to a good by running it through different phases of
production (ore, steel, sheet, mold, door, car); high value-added goods have a lot of material
input while low value-added goods require minimal material input
Stage in the production process: processing of raw materials, fabrication of parts, assembly
and integration
x o(t[o}]}vdZ}Ç~íõììWuvµ(µ]vPo}]}v]µ}vZo}[
model; firms would locate close to their target market or to their primary resource (steel mill
close to its iron source)
x ho]u(]uo}}^o}_o}]}vµ}vZv}]}v}(u]o}
the market, the source or the transportation network
x This model depends on the type of firm (market versus material)
x dZ}ouÁ]Zu}oµZt[]Z]]µ]]uo]]
x Characteristics of Global Economics:
Single world market with production for exchange
Spatial divisions divide the system: each region has a specific function
Existence of a defined Core and Periphery
Core cities are design and decision headquarters
Peripheries tend to be the manufacturing centres
Cycles of growth and cycles of decline
Importance of local economic actors (localism is still important)
x The post-war period is a transition from Fordism to post-Fordism
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Document Summary

N exam covers all course material up until end of this lecture. N mid-term will contain multiple choice questions and short answer questions. N primate city (city within a primate system): central city containing the majority of the regional population. N cities are often divided into sectors such as production, service, transportation, residential, commercial, etc. N one way to analyse a city is as a centre of manufacture and service delivery. N manufacturing is one of the most important factors in urban growth; much of early urbanisation is driven by manufacture. N manufacture helps us define the development of urban systems and the emergence of metropolises. N manufacture also defines how city specialization occurs: a city specialises in one specific type o manufacture; this in turn helps us define growth rates as a result of specialisation. N manufacturing activity contributes to the growth of the labour market and the production of usable goods for trade and city use.

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