Urbanization .docx

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19 Apr 2012
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GGR124 1/18/2012 4:08:00 PM
Urbanization - Lecture 1
Jan 11 2012
On assignments must write TUT number and TA name
Macro View
- Defining the city or urban
- Historical context
- Contemporary context
- City within a system of cities- the urban system (relationships between cities)
Micro View
- Internal relationships within the typical city
- How do cities work
- City as a jigsaw puzzle
- All fundamentals (economics, housing etc…) are interrelated/connected
-
Viewing where we live through the eyes of the urban geographer
Defining Terms: Basic Concepts
- The “urban”
- subject of much debate and disagreement
- Louis Wirth (1938) large, dense, relatively permanent settlements of
socially heterogeneous people (ethnically, culturally, sexuality differences)
- Lewis Mumford (1961) cities were a fundamental cultural institution
(innovations driven by ideas fueling)
- Bunting and Filion (2010) places of intense social interaction and exchange
between strangers
- Urban characteristics
- dense concentration (agglomeration) of people and activities
- proximity, density, and diversity are key characteristics to ALL cities
Urbanization
- shifting population balance between urban and rural areas
- proportion of the total population that is living in urban places (% urban)
- population in urban areas are on the rise (where most live)
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-
Deurbanization (counter-urbanization)
- balance is shifting towards peripheral/rural areas
- rural population growth is higher than urban population growth
- moving beyond the suburbs
- as lifestyles changes (ex. having children)
Urban Hierarchy
- ordering (and often ranking) of urban places by population size (and/or
functions performed, the importance/power of city too)
Metropolitanization
- metropolitan areas (the largest urban areas) are growing faster than smaller
urban areas (population is shifting up the urban hierarchy)
Suburbanization
- shifting population balance between suburban portions of metropolitan areas
and the rest of the country
- people moving out to commutershed areas
Measuring Urban Places
- urban places can be defined using a variety of different criteria
- principle methods used:
Population
- minimum size of settlement or agglomeration
- minimum density (number of people per hector)
- relying on population alone can be problematic
Economic Base
- minimum proportion of the labour force in non-agricultural occupations
Administrative
- using some legal or administrative criteria
- but, comparative research is difficult- where do we draw the lines?
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- physical (and social) extent of the city can extend far beyond the
administrative responsibility
-
Functional
- reflect the “real” extent of the urban influence
- census data expressed in terms of functional definition
- Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in the US
- Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) in Canada
January 18 2012 Lecture 2
Understand Urban Geography I
- Understand/interpret the distribution of towns and cities
- Account for the differences and similarities between them and within them
(towns and cities)
- Two Key themes
Spatial distribution of towns and cities system of cities
Internal structure of the city city as a system
- Discipline is eclectic (all over the map)
Understanding Urban Geography II
- discipline of urban geography is:
descriptive
o describing the city
interpretive
o interpreting the functions of the city
Explanatory
o Explain what you just saw in terms of a broader set of issues
around the society
Approaches to Urban Geography I
- Environmentalism
Relating physical structure to how people act in cities
Ex. The role of river systems and how that influenced urban areas
Site and Situation
Urban Morphology
- - Positivism
you could take any city and describe land use based on the model
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