GGR 124 Detailed Lecture Notes.docx

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21 Apr 2012
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Midterm Notes
Lecture 1
Urban:
Definition:
Louis Worth (1938) Large, dense, relatively permanent settlements of
socially heterogeneous people
Lewis Mumford (1961) Cities were a fundamental cultural institution
Bunting and Filion (2010) A place of intense social interation and
exchange between strangers
Agglomeration
o Dense concentration of people and activity
o A jumbled cluster or mass of varied parts
o Key Charateristics:
Density
Proximity
Diversity
Concept of urbanization and de-urbanization
o Rural population growth is higher than urban population growth
Metropolitanization
o Bigger urban areas growing faster than smaller urban areas
Suburbanization
o Shifting population balance between suburban portions of
metropolitan areas and rest of the country
Measuring urban places
o Population
o Economic Base
o Administration
o Functional
Understanding Geography I
o System of cities
o City as a system
Understanding Geography II
o Descriptive description of patterns and processes
o Interpretive examining how people understand and react to process
and patterns
o Explanatory Look for the origins of these patterns and processes
Approaches to Urban Geography I
o Environmentalism
Dominant upto the 20th century
Relationship between people and environment
Site and situation studies
Urban morphology
Approaches to Urban Geography II
o Positivism
Paradigm shift in 1950
Human behavior determined by scientific and universal laws
Two broad approaches
Ecological
o Human behavior based on ecology
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o Most powerful group obtain the most
advantageous place in a given space
Neo-Classical
o Driving force raitionality
o Homo-economicus and economic rationality of
behavior
o Cost minimization or benefit maximization
Approaches to urban Geography III
o Behavioral and humanistic
Emerged in 1970’s
Behavioral
Focused on decision making, on human nature but in a
model like way
Deeply subjective and complex relation between
individuals and groups
Techniques drawn from humanities such as film,
writing etc.
Approaches to Urban Geography IV
o Structuralism
Approach dominant in 1970’s
Broad approach in social sciences
Importance of social, economic and political structures in
society
Derived from KARL MARX
Approaches to Urban Geography V
o Post-modernism
Emerged in late 80’s early 90’s
Approach rejects that one’s perspective should hold sway
Emphasizes individual difference or multiple perspectives
World System of Cities National City System Region City
Neighbourhood
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