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GGR206H1 Lecture Notes - Vadose Zone, Greenhouse Gas, Shortwave Radiation

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Jennifer Harris

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Notes GGR206H1
Chapter 1 Summary
Physical Hydrology: Movement and physical properties of water on and
below the Earth’s surface (without ocean currents)
Water Table: Water from the ground rises to the pit
Saturated zone: below water table
Ground water: water stored under saturated zone
Unsaturated zone: below land pores of soil contains water and air
Soil water: water under unsaturated zone
2.5% of all available water is fresh water: 69% polar ice, 30% ground and 1%
surface water, soil water and atmospheric water
Greenhouse gas: atmosphere and most important in establishing Earth’s
Greenhouse gases with water vapour (H20) carbon dioxide allows the Earth’s
warming to pass through shortwave radiation but absorb longwaves through
radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface. Effectively sets the air temperature
to 15 degrees Celsius: greenhouse effect
Enhanced greenhouse effect: out of control warming of the Earth
Evaporation: change of liquid water to gas
Evaporation of the ocean; leaving salts in the ocean causing water vapour,
cloud droplets and precipitation
Many scientists believe global warming is speeding up the hydrological cycle
Drainage basin/catchment: geographical area drains into a river
Precipitation: process which liquid or solid falls onto the Earth
Channel precipitation: precipitation that falls directly to a river/stream
Interception: process vegetation/buildings intercept rainfall
Gross precipitation: total precipitation falling on the canopy of a tree
Throughfall: consists of raindrops that fall through the branches
Stemflow: rainfall that runs down the main stem of the tree
Infiltration: precipitation that trickles down cracks of rock, soil or sediment
Percolation: unsaturated zone water may move down to ground water
Interception loss: precipitation that is intercepted by buildings and
Surface storage: rain that is kept on land snow or ice
Water balance equation: In = Out + S
In and Out > 0
S can be positive, zero or negative
S > 0 positive; increase in water storage
S < 0 negative; decrease in water storage
S = 0 long term average
Hydrological year: duration one year and starts and ends with the dry season
Land-use and climate change scenarios: estimate effects
Lecture 3
Average resident time: water vapour in calculated in days
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