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Lecture 4

Week 4 - American Industrial Cities.pdf

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Robert Lewis

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Week 4 - American Industrial Cities Monday, January 28, 2013 11:18 AM The Jungle: American Industrial Cities - The Jungle takes place in Chicago. - The immigrant, Lithuanian, escapes to the US. - Question: What are the socio-spatial impacts of the rise of the industrial metropolis in the US between 1850 and 1930? - The industrial Metropolis in the US - The city of the mechanized factory - The city of the downtown office - The city of the segregated neighborhood Industrial Metropolis - Rural-urban divide from 1790 to 2001 - Large-scale growth since the early 19th century - Urban reaches a majority circa 1915 - Greatest growth rates after the Civil War - Evens out after 1970  Key Elements of the Capitalist Industrialization - Increasing wealth and investment, a growing working-class, the utilization of since and technology, state support, and the development of a circulation system - Capitalist system - Investment in shifting from commercial to manufacturing - Increasing productivity produce greater wealth to put back in the system - The development of a large working-class that the profits are being made  Rockefeller and Edison were 2 sides of the elite who initiated the ' Second Revolution' - Rockefeller - financial - Edison - technology - Same sides and need each other in order to gain profit  Key elements of the Second Revolution - New industries: Automobile, utility companies, telephone, radio - Corporate dominance: before 1880 and 1890, most economic activity took place between small family firms. Massive merger movements. Firms are buying firms. - Labor relations: formalized labor relations, union power, union are able to some extent shape corporate decisions. - Science in the workplace: Science is critical to the large corporations, firms are beginning to have their own scientists, research labs - how best to market their products. - Time-compression: How the world is getting smaller, railroad is a key element in the first industrial revolution, aviation industry in the second industrial revolution. - Capitalist city completely implicated in the innovative world being created - Second Industrial Revolution - growth of corporate economy between 1880 and WW2 - Fundamental change to capitalism and industrial development Industrial Corporation - Vertical and horizontal integration: corporations are taking more and more of the supply chain line and controlling it. By going so, they gain economic power. - Multi-unit over a vast territory - Large number of employees and assets - Large number of employees and assets - Economic concentration in 1940 - 5% of firms employed 70% of workers, 0.2% of firms owned 52% of assets.  Swift Empire - one of the big 5 meat packers - Mass production - Functional specialization - specialized labor - Managerial expertise - university graduate became managers, different than what it was before. - Distribution network - national distribution network, refrigerated freight cars developed in 1870s-80s - getting meat to long distances - Technological innovation - Lea
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