Week 4 - American Industrial Cities
Monday, January 28, 2013 11:18 AM
The Jungle: American Industrial Cities
- The Jungle takes place in Chicago.
- The immigrant, Lithuanian, escapes to the US.
Question: What are the socio-spatial impacts of the rise of the industrial metropolis in the US
between 1850 and 1930?
- The industrial Metropolis in the US
- The city of the mechanized factory
- The city of the downtown office
- The city of the segregated neighborhood
- Rural-urban divide from 1790 to 2001
- Large-scale growth since the early 19th century
- Urban reaches a majority circa 1915
- Greatest growth rates after the Civil War
- Evens out after 1970
Key Elements of the Capitalist Industrialization
- Increasing wealth and investment, a growing working-class, the utilization of since and
technology, state support, and the development of a circulation system
- Capitalist system
- Investment in shifting from commercial to manufacturing
- Increasing productivity produce greater wealth to put back in the system
- The development of a large working-class that the profits are being made
Rockefeller and Edison were 2 sides of the elite who initiated the ' Second Revolution'
- Rockefeller - financial
- Edison - technology
- Same sides and need each other in order to gain profit
Key elements of the Second Revolution
- New industries: Automobile, utility companies, telephone, radio
- Corporate dominance: before 1880 and 1890, most economic activity took place between
small family firms. Massive merger movements. Firms are buying firms.
- Labor relations: formalized labor relations, union power, union are able to some extent
shape corporate decisions.
- Science in the workplace: Science is critical to the large corporations, firms are beginning
to have their own scientists, research labs - how best to market their products.
- Time-compression: How the world is getting smaller, railroad is a key element in the first
industrial revolution, aviation industry in the second industrial revolution.
- Capitalist city completely implicated in the innovative world being created
- Second Industrial Revolution - growth of corporate economy between 1880 and WW2
- Fundamental change to capitalism and industrial development
- Vertical and horizontal integration: corporations are taking more and more of the supply
chain line and controlling it. By going so, they gain economic power.
- Multi-unit over a vast territory
- Large number of employees and assets - Large number of employees and assets
- Economic concentration in 1940 - 5% of firms employed 70% of workers, 0.2% of firms
owned 52% of assets.
Swift Empire - one of the big 5 meat packers
- Mass production
- Functional specialization - specialized labor
- Managerial expertise - university graduate became managers, different than what it was
- Distribution network - national distribution network, refrigerated freight cars developed
in 1870s-80s - getting meat to long distances
- Technological innovation