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GGR246H1 Lecture Notes - Non-Renewable Resource, Bar Chart, Canadian Shield

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Sally Turner

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Lecture 2: Resource Economies
West Coast Cordillera
- trees
- Oil deposits from an ancient sea
- Oil deposits
Canadian Shield
- Mineral deposits
- How many communities build up in the Canadian shield?
- Diamonds
East Coast
- Cod
- Continental shelf
- Resource mismanagement!
Harold Inns: Staples Theory
- Resources are the basis of Canada’s economic growth
- Consider where ppl live and how they live
- We will examine the East Coast Fishery
Alternative Development Strategy
- How does change come along when industries collapse?
Case Studies
- BC: Forestry sustainable Practices
o commons
- ON: Mining ghost towns
o Alternative development strategies available for communities
- NFL: Fisheries sustainability and alternative development strategies
BC Forestry: Background
- Significantly larger forestry resource
- Economic significance shows that it has decreased over time
- DOES NOT mean value of forestry is decreasing
- CP railway opened up markets into Canada
- There has been a push to increase value of products from the forest
1. Defining he Forest
- ½ of BC is covered in forest
- only ¼ BC is available for timber harvesting
- 5 broad physiographic regions distinct combos of: climate, landforms, vegetation, and soil
- We can lump those 5 regions into 2 categories:
- Coastal forest
o Rainforest (douglas fir, red cedar)
o Wet marine climate
o High rainfall
o Mild temperatures
- Interior forest
o Semi-arid climate
o Boreal forest (spruce and pine + others)
2. Economic Significance fo the Forest
- 1 in 6 jobs in BC s directly or indirectly derived from forestry
o Transportation
- >130 BC communities are largely dependent on the forest industry
3. Resource Management
- clear-cutting:
o destroys ecosystems
o taking away larger trees (habitats, shade for smaller plants, shrubs)
o issues soil erosion, lack of nutrients (no more decaying of plants/ recycling nutrients
very difficult to restart habitat), infertile, compacted soil
- over-harvesting:
o destruction of ecosystem
o destruction of communities
Tragedy of the Commons: Garrett Hardin (1968)
- when there is a shared resource (natural), ppl will over exploit the resource and overlook how
they should use the resource sustainably
- if one company is gonna do it, everyone’s gonna do it.
- Once the resources is destroyed in the short term, it cannot be used in the long term
4. Measures to Reduce Over Exploitation
- Improvements in management techniques (1980s)
- Changes to BC’s Forest Renewal Policy (1990s)
o Who can use the forest
o When (time frame)
Improvements in Management Techiques (1980s)
- Key Innovation 1: transfer of responsibility and cost of regeneration from the provincial gov’t
- The most important step that the gov’t took
- Key Innovation 2: technological advancements
o Improved step preparation
o Purposes:
o Methods:
o Mechanical:
o Chemical:
o Issue: making sure the saplings survive
- Increased brushing
Changes to BC’s Forest Renewal Policy (1990s)
Silviculture Plans & Prescriptions
Clear cutting
- Limits on size of cutbacks
Sol Protection
- Protecting forest soil from excessive disturbance due to:…
Ecosystem-based management
- Climate, sol, and vegetation data identifies 100
Genetically Improved Seed
- Wherever possible, genetically improved seed must be used
- Improves growth rates and survival rates of saplings
- To ensure the ongoing health of BC’s forests
- To ensure the ongoing biodiversity of BC’s forest
- To ensure the ongoing economic viability of BC’s forest
Which definition of Sustainability do you think is best?
- A 40%
o Talks about all the diff aspects of environmental sustainability
o Economic value and social value
- B
- C
- D 38%
o Definition that is popularly used in publications
o Not very specific
ON: Mining
- Toronto agricultural economy
- Montreal St. Lawrence, trading
- Canadian Shield mineral rich
- Entire communities built around mines
- Boom and bust cycles
o Boom = when a natural resource is discovered and rapidly exploited
o Bust = when a resource is nearing its end, the communities dependent go bust
- Challenges: non-renewable resource,
o increased mechanization
profits run out quickly because resource depletes quickly; reducing the time the
industry will be around for
increased mechanization = less jobs; reducing number of ppl that can get jobs
out of the industry
Ghost Towns: Mining’s Legacy