Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (640,000)
UTSG (50,000)
Geography (500)

GGR246H1 Lecture Notes - Turnitin, Tertiary Sector Of The Economy, Central Canada

Course Code
Sally Turner

of 5
Lecture 3
Sept. 24, 2012.
Assignment 1: Rural Economies
- Focuses on lecture 1 & 2 rural economies
- Northern ON Mining, NFL Cod Fisheries, BC Forest
- Sustainability
- How can you ensure you use the resource sustainably? What happens when you don’t use it
Defining ‘Rural Communities’
- Communities outside of urban areas
- Typically fairly small population size (< 25,000)
- Often far from large urban areas
o Challenging b/c urban centres can provide secondary job prospects
- Environmental sustainability
- Reliance on 1 or 2 employers
o exploitation
- Outmigration
o Movement of ppl from that community to a larger urban area with more employment
opportunities, cheaper housing, amenities
Assignment Task
- 1) Choose a rural community
- Sources cannot include Wikipedia
- 2) discuss the economic and social challenges associated with rural communities
- Theoretically for rural communities as a whole
- Sources provided on Blackboard
- Don’t need to have journal articles
- Gov’t publications, community websites, etc.
- 3) discuss the economic
- Historically what have been the key industries been? 10 20 years in the past
- What chellenges have they faced? strikes
- Has the community experienced any significant plant closures or other events that have caused
significant economic upheaval? Major layoff threat
- Not able to maintain population? Why is the population declining?
- 4) looking into the future, how sustainable are the key industries in the long term? Asking for my
- Challenges in terms of economy, env pollution, in-migration
- Thinkabout wht the community has to offer: scenic town, cultural groups
Structure & Page Limits
- Double spaced
- DO NOT go a page over/under; a little is okay.
- Intro ½ to ¼ page
- Rural communities challenges 1 to 2 pages
- Your community
- Critical Thinking think about why we see certain challenges
- Logically and temporally organized past to future
- Links suggestions to the physical geog of the region go back to first lecture and think abt how
the phys geog can provide alternative opportunities
- Class ID: 5462584
- PW: Canada2012
To Note
- First person is OK
- Any style referencing
Industrial Economies
- Secondary industries that produce goods for consumers and businesses
o Primary indus: natural resource exploitation
o Secondary: processing of resources
o Tertiary: consumer goods
- BC has locational advantage (west coast)
o Ship goods through the west coast
- Prairies and atlantic fairly low
- North is very low b/c in the middle of no where
Geographic Concentration
- First settlements in NE of quebec, then to Ontario
- West settlement a lot later
- Think about it
- Why was central Canada so attractive to early European settlers?
- Great lakes, St. Lawrence lowlands allows easy provision through agricultural means
Core-Periphery Model
- Montreal, Toronto, Sarnia,
- Ontario & Quebec manufacturing core 1850 onwards
- Development focused on Toronto, Hamilton and Montreal
- Factories downtown
- Peripheral Canada (West, Atlantic): The market for central Canada
- Interior plains = 2nd most productive land
- Production on the market where the city can start to ndustrialize
Toronto: The Esplanade, 1894
- Heavy industrialization located on water
Montreal, late 19th C
- Concentrated around water, St. Lawrence River
Mail-Order Industrialization
- Companies in centralized areas in Canada needed to ship to communites way out west
- Manufacturing firms located in central Canada would create catalogues containing detailed
pictures and descriptions of their products
- Got everything they needed through mail…?
- Eatons
o Mailing lists got contact information
- Made possible by settlement of the West
- Made possible by CP and CN railways
o Move goods and services and people
- Gave Central CDN firms access to a large market
- If we didn’t have such a large market in the West, we would not have such developed urban
National Policy
- Federal Gov’t created national policy: high tariffs/taxes on products from US
- Base price PLUS additional charge
- Industrial communities developed earlier in US
- Goals
o Wanted to encourage and develop internal manufacturing industry
Ongoing Advantage
- Of settlement in central Canada
- Large skilled workforce
- Transit links
o Canadian National Railways and transnational highways
- Geographic location
o We are close to many major markets on the East Coast of US
NP & Western Alienation
- Caused a lot of resentment in westerners and ppl living in Central Canada b/c central and
Quebec developed on the backs of Western Canada
- We see the beginning of the “Western Alienation”
- National Policy skewed in favour of Central Canada
- Westerners feel that all their hard work and toil (farm, physical labour) is going to feed central
Canada which sells them back overpriced manufactured products
Economic Integration: 1950
- Extreme protectionism to…
- 1940s National policy being dismantled free trade!
- Not a lot of economic potential if we rely on own economic markets
CDN Industrial Economies
- We had a very small population so a small auto industry