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GGR246H1 Lecture Notes - Canadian Forest Service, Responsible Government, Softwood

Course Code
Sally Turner

of 9
Physical distance between reserves and resource sites Lack of involvement in decision making processes
Lack of communication Lack of trust Lack of education and training Lack of sustainability
First Nations Forestry Program (Ontario):-A partnership between First Nations, Indian and Northern
Affairs Canada (INAC) and Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service (NRCan-CFS)- Launched
in 1996- Funding for First Nations entrepreneurs looking to use Northern Ontario’s forestry resources-
Overcomes several barriers in terms of granting First Nations greater access to natural resources:-
Education and training- Financial funding- Trust
Reserves:-Legal barriers to homeownership- Low incomes- High housing costs- Poorly constructed
Cross Lake reserve in northern Manitoba, Kashechewan reserve in northern Ontario, Ahousaht First
Nations Reserve: Vancouver Island,
Federal Programs to improve on-reserve housing Canada’s Economic Action Plan- A 2-year stimulus
program (2008-2010)- Infrastructure investments- New jobs in construction Social Housing Renovation
& Retrofit Program: $125 million-Upgrades to already existing housing on reserves New Construction
Program: $125 million-Dedicated to expanding the supply of on-reserve housing Additional $150 million
for long-term projects
Diet-Related Illnesses Reserves: - Resource poor- Infertile land Off-Reserves:- Higher proportion of low
income earners- Lower education levels- Forgotten culture
Stress-related Illnesses:- Cultural disruption- Poverty-induced stress
Overcrowding:- Infectious diseases- TB, HIV- Parasitic diseases
Barriers to health care access:- Cultural- Geographic- Infant mortality- Cancer- Hypertension
- Isolation, Discouragement, Lack of on-reserve employment, Subsistence-level activities, Cash-economy,
Lower education levels, Suicide Rates: “I am here today because my ancestors, starving as they often
were, fought to survive. Why did the old people strive to live ... and the young people now want to
die?”, Suicide rates 2 or 3 times higher than Canadian average, Suicide rates for youth 5 or 6 times
higher than for non Native youth
Moving Forward
Acknowledging history and its consequences, Accepting responsibility, Prioritizing land claims, Forfeiting
economic gain, Effectiveness of the transfer payment system?
Jacques Cartier: 1534, Quebec City: 1608 Samuel de Champlain
Locational Advantages Fur, Whales, Trade Route
Seigneurial System:
Seven Years of War: 1756-1763
European Colonial Powers, Battles: Europe, Africa, India, North America, South America, Philippine
Quebec City held captive 1759-1763
Treaty of Paris (1763): Ceded control of New France to Britain British governor installed
Guadalupe & Martinique: Sugar resources
Quebec Act: 1774
- Guaranteed free practice of Catholic faith, Restored the use of French Civil Law for private matters,
Public matters (administration) governed by English Common Law
French pushed away from prime agricultural lands further inland
Growing tensions turn of nineteenth century, rebellions 1837, Colonial governors in Upper and Lower
Canada easily bribed, Chateau Clique Lower Canada, Family Compact Upper Canada
Province of Canada: 1841 Push for ‘responsible’ government, Attempted assimilation of the French ,
English became the sole official language of the union, Mass immigration of English-speakers into Lower
Canada, Lord Durham: ‘Two nations warring in the bosom of a single state’.‘A people with no literature
and no history’.
Catholic Church as the key to maintaining language and culture
Confederation, 1867
- Economic union, Protection of the French language, Control over education system, Expansion of
territory, Ability to shape Canada’s future
Quebec: 1960s Rural, Poverty, Foreign companies, Church control: political policies, education, finances,
Key issue:
French language, Multi-national corporations
Federalists: Pierre Trudeau, Separatists: Rene Levesque
Manicouagan: Daniel-Johnson Dam, Symbolic value
“The development of James Bay is the key to economic progress in Quebec; it is also key to its social
progress and its political stability: it is the future of Quebec.”- Robert Bourassa
Inside Hydro Quebec: - Job creation- Francophone in entirety
Pension Plan- Funds for business development- Natural resource infrastructure
Also: Societe generale de finance Societe Quebecois des mineraux Low interest business loans Mineral
Religiously-focused education Girls trained only to be ‘maitresses de maison
Science and technology- Larger high schools- Co-eds- Community college system
Robert Bourassa: 1970-76 focus on attracting business and investment Less concerned with social
Front de Liberation du Quebec- Protests- Kidnappings- Attempted bombings
Bill 101: Language Rights
The right to have the civil administration, the health services and social services, the public utility
enterprises, the professional corporations, the associations of employees and all enterprises doing
business in Quebec communicate in French. The right to speak French in deliberative assemblies, The
right of workers to carry on their activities in French, The right of consumers to be informed and served
in French, The right of persons eligible for instruction in Quebec to receive that instruction in French
Rene Levesque Parti Quebecois 1968 Premier 1976- Increased minimum wage- Increased labour rights-
Maternity leave- Increased daycare access- Funding for small Francophone businesses- Funding for
French cultural groups- Protection of agricultural land
1980 Referendum
"The Government of Quebec has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of
Canada, based on the equality of nations; this agreement would enable Quebec to acquire the exclusive
power to make its laws, levy its taxes and establish relations abroad in other words, sovereignty
and at the same time to maintain with Canada an economic association including a common currency;
any change in political status resulting from these negotiations will only be implemented with popular
approval through another referendum; on these terms, do you give the Government of Quebec the
mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada? YES 40.44% NO 59.56%
Meech Lake Accord, 1987- a recognition of Quebec as a "distinct society"- a constitutional veto for
Quebec and the other provinces- increased provincial powers with respect to immigration- extension
and regulation of the right for a reasonable financial compensation to any province that chooses to opt
out of any future federal programs in areas of exclusive provincial jurisdiction- provincial input in
appointing senators and Supreme Court judges Designed to secure Quebec’s place within Canada