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5 Aug 2010
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Lecture 11: March 26
Ethnic groups like to cluster because of internal and external processes.
x Internal (voluntary) ± because it is comfortable there. (food, people, etc.)
x External (involuntary) ± because it is uncomfortable.
Any cluster pattern is a product of internal and external processes.
Fig. 9.5: Jewish Population of Leeds, England.
x There is a dispersion of the cluster but cluster is linear (The dispersion follows a pattern)
x For Jewish people, need to look at ethnic origin.
Table 11.4: Lifestyles from Census Data
x Magazines are important because they contain advertisements.
Table 11.5: Canadian lifestyles.
7. Consumer Behaviour
Awareness Space: our perception
Activity space ± if we actually went there. (mobility)
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RILW3DFLILF0DOOLVDQDFWLYLW\VSDFHEHFDXVH,YHEHHQWKHUH
Mobility has increased our activity space.
(I)YOPHS (Immigrants Young Old Poor Housewives Sick) ± immobile subgroups of a population.
Generally females are less mobiles because:
x More responsibilities at short distances.
x Most of employment at downtown so take public transportation.
x Safety: much less safe especially at night.
Retail Supply
1. The Major Actors:
x Independents: less than 3 stores (but mostly only one)
x Retailing chains/franchises
x Shopping centre developers
x Government agencies
x Planners
2. The diversity of retail classifications and retail structure
A simple classification system.
3. Retail concentration :
x In the urban systems: population head offices.
x In retail chains
x In shopping centres.
x Current trends of change
4. The Retail Chain:
x Large and few
x Advantages and disadvantages compared to independents.
x Inflexible? Mega-chains compared to franchises.
5. Shopping centre.
x Developers and retail chains.
x Large and few.
x Shopping centre design.
6. Power centres: the way of the future?
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Document Summary

Ethnic groups like to cluster because of internal and external processes. Internal (voluntary) because it is comfortable there. (food, people, etc. ) N external (involuntary) because it is uncomfortable. Any cluster pattern is a product of internal and external processes. N there is a dispersion of the cluster but cluster is linear (the dispersion follows a pattern) N for jewish people, need to look at ethnic origin. N magazines are important because they contain advertisements. Activity space if we actually went there. (mobility) Mobility has increased our activity space. (i)yophs (immigrants young old poor housewives sick) immobile subgroups of a population. N most of employment at downtown so take public transportation. N safety: much less safe especially at night. Independents: less than 3 stores (but mostly only one) N planners: the diversity of retail classifications and retail structure. A simple classification system: retail concentration : N current trends of change: the retail chain:

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