Lecture 11: March 26
Ethnic groups like to cluster because of internal and external processes.
x Internal (voluntary) ± because it is comfortable there. (food, people, etc.)
x External (involuntary) ± because it is uncomfortable.
Any cluster pattern is a product of internal and external processes.
Fig. 9.5: Jewish Population of Leeds, England.
x There is a dispersion of the cluster but cluster is linear (The dispersion follows a pattern)
x For Jewish people, need to look at ethnic origin.
Table 11.4: Lifestyles from Census Data
x Magazines are important because they contain advertisements.
Table 11.5: Canadian lifestyles.
7. Consumer Behaviour
Awareness Space: our perception
Activity space ± if we actually went there. (mobility)
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Mobility has increased our activity space.
(I)YOPHS (Immigrants Young Old Poor Housewives Sick) ± immobile subgroups of a population.
Generally females are less mobiles because:
x More responsibilities at short distances.
x Most of employment at downtown so take public transportation.
x Safety: much less safe especially at night.
1. The Major Actors:
x Independents: less than 3 stores (but mostly only one)
x Retailing chains/franchises
x Shopping centre developers
x Government agencies
2. The diversity of retail classifications and retail structure
A simple classification system.
3. Retail concentration :
x In the urban systems: population head offices.
x In retail chains
x In shopping centres.
x Current trends of change
4. The Retail Chain:
x Large and few
x Advantages and disadvantages compared to independents.
x Inflexible? Mega-chains compared to franchises.
5. Shopping centre.
x Developers and retail chains.
x Large and few.
x Shopping centre design.
6. Power centres: the way of the future?