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Lecture 3

GGR339H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Garden City Movement, Neighborhood Watch, Half-Life

Geography and Planning
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GGR339 (Lecture Three) – Geographies of Encounter - Tuesday, January 20, 2015
The “shock city”
and the
production of
capitalist space
Lecture Outline
19th Century Industrial City
Urban planner – Howard and Le Corbusier
Jane Jacobs
Problems with Jacobs in the film
19th Century
Industrial City
The context Howard and Le Corbusier is in.
Shock cities are cities that are growing faster than they can accommodate, especially
during the industrial revolution. This is drastically different from people coming from the
country. It is too varied for people to comprehend.
Example of a “Shock City”
Fishman talks about a city explosion, going from Chicago with a few people in 1840 to
1.7 million people in less than 60 years.
Nature of the Modern City
This is the first space that is capitalist. Harvey talks about the city as a movement of
capital. Time based on the clock. People are living in tenement and slums, creating
hazardous conditions including the lack of sewage.
Results of the Modern City
Frank demonstrates how terrible it is (Supplementary readings).
This resulted in the human body brokenness in 1820 (20% are under 20 years ago). If
you were 13-14 you were still able to work 12 hours a ago. This questions the ability of
human potential.
In-Class Film How the Other Half lives, was written by Jacob Reese. In 1870, he wrote about the slums
in the police lodging houses. In 1887 he was able to photograph the tenements with the
Mg. This bridged the gap between the centers. A tenement has many people with little
space, began in the 19th century.
In the novel he moves away from the Victorian understanding of poverty. He says that
environment is a huge factor for breeding crime.
Urban Utopias What is the ideal city for the 20th century?

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Urban planning proceeds from a belief that solving the urban crisis can solve the social
crisis. Fisherman calls to attention that these were ideals not concrete. He knows that the
urban planners know that there is no link between aesthetic-building, rather a reshaping
of society.
Fisherman notes three commonalities:
(1) Fear and revolution of the 19th century city 1
(2) Strong faith in technology (express trains, telegraphs, automobile). They believe
that this may be a social lever.
(3) A revolution is at hand, there was an optimistic outlook.
Ebenezer Howard
(1850 – 1928)
Fisherman tells us that he is an inventor. He says that Howard is a reformist, who
believed in massive changes, breaking away from Marxist doctrines. He was committed
to changing capitalist from within (no need for conflict). Howard was looking towards
discussion as a way of solving
The Garden city
It was important for the influence of imagination, echoing Young’s thoughts of a
community. In practical terms, he says that one should leave the city because of the
centralization of power, thus you need good air.
Recall: The coal factories influencing environmental conditions and human health.
What is it? A standard city with a limited number of people, if you grew than you built
another city. It is 1000 acres and cannot get bigger than that because it needs to be
surrounded by nature. Furthermore, it is sectioned into 6 wards with 1,000 families with a
school in the center. The school should be a civic life and the center of it is a crystal
palace (co-op store). He calls for a circular railway.
Compact, effective.
Interesting: Leisure is at the center of the city. The circular shape is supposedly a good
landscape for building community and social harmony. He claims that this needs to be a
co-operative society.
Fisherman said that Howard did like the city because of the variety. However, he felt that
1 Questioning whether or not the movements are actually anti-urban.
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