HPhps jan24S300 January 24.docx

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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Hakob Barseghyan

HPS300 January 24, 20113 Physics - Region below moon everything made of 4 elemets - 2 are heavy and 2 are light - Air and fire light - Water earth are heavy - Means – every element natural position - Elements tend to natural position intrinsic inclination - Heavy elements is center of universe so descend - For light elements opp to periphery of terrestrial region Examples - Fire to ascend bc lighter reason goes up - No other physical meachanism - Boil water vapor ascends – not air you breath only air you breath not water all liquids - Water descends - Conclsuoin follows – earth combination - Home in center bc made of earth and water - Compound of those two things no other place for things to be - Layer earth and water - Then air then top layer is fire - Earth in center follows from physics - No way accomdate moving earth static - As long accept hose physics need to accept this Elements - Heavy and light - Earth a little heavier then water why drop stone in water it goes through - Can have scale same property why did like he did is bc elements are essentially different - Not heaviness zero undecided have go up or down no middle Sensible qualities - Cold and hot - Air and fire are hot and earth water are cold – air whole life in Greece - Plus wet water and air - Dry earth and fire - Why important - They can transform - Water cold to hot get transformation of elements - Fire wood earth and water probably – goes down those two maybe some from other two - In combustion those two to other two - Fire and vapor - Cold to hot - Water in pot - Cold to hot and tuen to vapour - Elements and… form - Compound not defined by elements but by form Human - Made of combination of elements - Drop we descend dominantly earth and water - Defines humans is capacity of reason - Tree you have elements and susbstantial form – treeness - Not all about elements something above and beyond - Stuff same but substantially different – same elements what differs is organization therefore something above and beyond - Difference elements is substantial forms - So many different things in world not elements but forms - Anti red – not aristotlean form - Not collection of elements something beyond whole sis greater then sum of parts - Follows from hylomprhism - Does apply to elements - Take earth in purest form or not apply have pure matter - Elements compound of form and matter or except form and matter - It does apply - All elements compound some prime matter and fomr - Combination prime matter organized in way form of airness makes it air - Some prime matter and form attached that defines it Example - At sea - Greek galley - Made of some wooden beams - Build according to a certain plan - Made in particlur way allows for floatin and allows for navigation - Wooden beams themselves not pure matter only matter of galley - Beams themselves – form and elements – comn of eath and matter - Element earth is same story - More then just matter prime matter and earthiness - Same logic apply to but no access to depth of universe - Aristotle say go on forever – if hylomorphism consistent then has to go on forever Reductionist - Championed by many people - Democritus - Don’t need forms – materialist - Matter can exist no forms - Galley complex system of atoms - Different shape arrangements of atoms th th - Democritus believed tiny constituents different size different speeds – 19 and 20 scientist similar indeed - View is nice not explain how same thing bc composed of different atoms elemts Gold - Substantial form of goldness - Symbol same as sun – intrinsic connection - Some matter - Since solid therefore indication is earth - Heating it earth to water- change in elements - Same gold substantially combination of elemts is different – based on behavior more water in liquied gold then in solid gold Aphrodite - Statue same regardless what it is made of same substance bc substantial form the same - The final cause is same beauty - Formal cuase is same thing Summary - Mere collection of parts - Attention to opposing views and square Mathematics - Many disciplines what field math applicable to - Are psych are phys and phys are chemical then are expressible in physics - Back in days
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