Lecture 2: Fear and Conditioning

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University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Marga Vicedo

Fear and Conditioning  History influences research o Causes research, what is researched o Affects how it is received and criticized  Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) o 1870s, Germany – Wundt establishes the first psychological laboratory o Subject matter analysis of consciousness, elemental components and how tey are perceived and synthesized o Research methods: systematic introspection o Naturalistic process of change o Proposal: only focus on observable behaviour  Thorndike o Law of Effect: behaviours that are followed by positive results become more frequent o The baseline for conditioning  Pavlov o The dog salivates because it sees food, when the bell is rung, food is brought to the dog. The dog then associates the bell with food and salivates when the bell is rung, even when there is no food.  Unconditioned response – salivation  Unconditioned stimulus – food  Conditioned response – salivation  Conditioned stimulus – bell  John Watson (1878 – 1958) o A prodigy in the psychological field o “Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It” (1913) o Turns psychology into a science o Central question about behaviour: what was leaned and what was inherited? o Nature or Nurture?  Karl Lashley o Studied daily activities o Wanted to learn what was instin
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