HPS211 2013.01.29 Lecture Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Curtis Forbes

January 29, 2013 – Lecture Notes HPS211 - The Industrial Revolution Cottage industry production - New money and social values The rise of the machines - Spinning jenny - Industrialized production - New technologies new forms of productive - Lots of improvements in technology, materials, building, etc Steam Engines - Very important development - Turned heat into motive work - Before the steam engine they used a water wheel to power factories but with the steam engine there was more power and it didn’t have to be by a river - Really reduced the labour - Basically fist invented by Thomas Newcomen (17 -18 c) th th - Originally used as a power source to take water out of mines - Allowed for a lot more efficiency - James watt increased the efficiency greatly Thermodynamics – the science of heat - Many people thought that all action was a series of heat transfer - This placed the physicists at the center of the social/science world Sadi Carnot (18 – 19 c) th - Engineer - Sense that technical knowledge could be used to advance and benefits many aspects of society - France was at the forefront of this thinking - Had a negative family stigma after the napoleanic wars - Could get jobs - Ideal heat engine - Wanted to understand general principles of all things driven by heat so tried to create and ideal heat engine - The basic principle developed was that motion came from heat transfer - Motion was produced through the transfer of heat - Caloric idea o Saw heat as a sort of fluid that flowed through certain bodies o Allowed people to treat heat as a liquid which proved useful - He also said that if you were to get heat/motion from a source you can only get as much motion/heat as was input - The academics of his time did not receive his work very well - Although the engineers received it a lot better - Eventually his work was translated into a more mathematic form - Attitude that heat science was a social tool - Attitude that was very prominent in the industrial revolution Prescott Joule (19 c)h - Argued that heat wasn’t caloric but that it was a form of motion - Primary work was
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