HPS211 lec1 Jan10th.docx

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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Curtis Forbes

HPS211 lec1 Jan10th Thomas Kunn Wrote the influential book after studying history of science after considering that the way people record science is wrong. Coined the term paradigm. Stressed that we need to study history and philosophy of science together. “what are scientific revolutions and what is its necessity?” p92. “…revolution is when old paradigm replaced in whole or part.by an incompatible new one” Cumulative: accumulation of facts. Many saw science as such before Kun, while he thought its incorrect. Believed it happens only within a paradigm. Paradigm: A same view about fundamental nature of reality. Some well accepted approach of ideology. A well-known frame of reference. Normal Science: Where accumulation of facts happens. Happens after acceptance of paradigm that provides a set of tools, and lets us neglect the alternatives. Anomaly: Something off/wrong given a certain paradigm and establishment. Crisis: conversations about the anomalies and presentation of new alternative ideas. Revolution: After the crisis occurs, the change in paradigm, creating a new point of view after the revolution is finished. Shift in fundamental ideas. Why “revolution”? >> it is a political event e.g. change of government Why revolution happens: Analogous in both scienti
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