Lecture 4 - Evolution & Laboratory

4 Pages
Unlock Document

History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Chen- Pang Yeang

HPS211 Lecture 4 MAY24/2011 - Introduction to new concepts in the 19 century (i.e. evolution, cells, genes, energy, etc.) th - 19 . c., a period marked by institutionalization and professionalization of science th  The # of people who became engaged in science (professionally) grew in the 19 century  Emergence of professional (scientific) associatin/organization  Universities – the center of scientific research - Intense application of science in industries, especially physical science  A part of science became tech-oriented/practical arts - 19 century = High modernity Evolution I. Evolution before Darwin - General view in 17 and 18 c., (i.e. Linnaeus)  Species are invariant  Taxonomy reflects God’s plan  Linnaeus later stated that change can occur in species (very minor) within closely-related species - Rising materialistic theory during Enlightenment  Buffon’s origin of the earth and changes of species  Beginnings of evolution theory – movement away from religious explanation (?) for species - New evidence from fossils and comparative anatomy  Fossils revealed very different species in past  Anatomy suggested kinship between species  Species underwent transformation - Jean Baptiste Lamarck  Professor at Museum of Natural History, Paris  Wrote Zoological Philosophy (1809)  Leading researcher on invertebrates - Lamarck’s theory ofevolution:  Species undergo changes in characters; they are not invariant (just look at man-bred domestic animals and plants)  Variations of species are not random; they have a direction: toward adaptation to environment  Mechanism of evolution: inheritance of acquired characters - Lamarck’s Adaptive Mechanism of Evolution  Change in environment varies the activities of living beings  As the new environmental condition stabilizes, activities become a habit  New habit forces animals or plants to overuse some organs, while disuse some others  The overused organs become prominent, the disused organs degenerate  Acquired change of character passes down to next generation  Incremental changes over generations lead to salient difference  transformation of species  Uses giraffes as explanation/example  Giraffe strengthened their neck to adapt to the environment - Lamarck’s theory of evolution was considered radical - Cuvier  difficult for species transformation, since characters interlocked in an integrated system  Species extinct, not evolve - Religious extension of Cuvier: natural theology  William Paley: Natural Theology (1802)  Argument of design - Other evolutionary theories were linear, progressive  “Grand chain of being” tradition II. Darwin’s Early Life - Charles Darwin  from a prominent family in England  His father, Erasmus, was a prominent figure during the Industrial Revolution  came from an intellectual family  Abandoned medical education in Edinburgh  Pursued art degree at Cambridge (preparation for clergyman)  Not a professional scientist; amateurish  “amateur” naturalist  Self-studied natural history - Darwin voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle between 1831-37  Shi p meant to charter the coasts of South America  Witnessed the geological/volcanic force in the Indus Mountains  saw its effect on the land  Darwin believed in uniformitarianism and volcanism (?) III. Affirmation of Evolution - Stayed for a month on Galapagos islands  Observed a variety of species (i.e. birds and finches, etc.)  Observed different kinds of finches inhabit different areas of the island  Brought back observation to England and inquired with a naturalist  indicated that finches were different species  Darwin sceptical – believed the differen kinds of finches were just variation of the same species - Discover Species in Making  Galapagos finches looked like different species to naturalists  But nature can’t create so many species in a small area  Must be variations within the same species  No sharp boundary between species and variations  The Galapagos finches are species in making. They witness the continual branching of species. This is evolution  Question: What is the mechanism of evolution? IV. From artificial selection to natural selection - Like Lamarck, Darwin got ideas from domestic animals - Lamarck: variations due to animals adapting human-controlled environment - Darwin: variations due to man-made selection  Some wolves have long legs and slim figures, some not  Long-legged slim wolves are selected for breedings  Their children are more likely long-legged, slim  Over generations, wolves domesticated into hounds - Variations due to artificial selection  species and higher categories due to natural selection - Thomas Malthus  Wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798-1826)  Population growth exceeds resource growth  Competition for resource, struggle for existence  Unfitted demise, fitted survive  Against poverty-relief welfare  Consistent with libertarian capitalism in Victorian Britain  $ to poor leads to poor
More Less

Related notes for HPS211H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.