30th Jan 2012.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Hakob Barseghyan

th30 Jan 2012 HPS250H Lecture 4 Logical Positivism IN THIS LECTURE WE WILL FIRST PRESENT THE REFUTATION OF KANTIAN APRIORISMCARRYING ON FROM LAST LECTURE Kantian ApriorismI provide solutions to every problem that proved fatal to classical empiricism and apriorismThe world of phenomena is all we deal with in experiments and observations since it is shaped by our a priori formsOur capacity to se things in time and spaceEverything we see is prestructure by our capacities of perceiving space and time its already filteredTherefore Kant bypassed Pyrrhos problemProblem of Hume is solved by the principle of universal causalityThis principle is justified by the fact that the world of phenomena is pre structured by itOur world of phenomena is knowable we ha absolutely certain knowledgeThis is a simple historical fact says KantEg A world that doesnt comply with the principle of universal causality is unknowableThis premise is self evident says KantFrom the two premises above we deduce that the world of phenomena complies with the principle of causality which ensures the certainty of our knowledge th The trouble is that by the beginning of the 20 century we discovered that both these premises were falseYear 1740 Newtons theory becomes universally accepted ie by the scientific community in France and BritainA gradual process but is a good approximation1781 Kant writes his book First Critique Newtons theory was considered proven beyond any doubt1920 another theory became accepted Einsteins theory of Relativity
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