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University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Lucia Dacome

HPS318 January 8, 2013 Past is a foreign country – meaning, hard to understand bc very different not transerfernt One essential thing look at past as foreign counry very different from where we are now Past different something that is other by bracketing things we know about the present, the otherness of past forget of the present. Past very different body very different from today body as balanced as fluids. Little sense of solidity. Sex identity very different ways, today sex identity in terms of science and medicine with hormones and genetics they look at sense of temp cold and humid women hotand dry men change temp change in sex. th Robert danton – in 18 century case no sense of empathy with cats “other people are other.” Capturing otherness Beware anachromism - projecting present day knowledge onto the past rather construcuting in its own terms. Less common history of science or medicince paradigm celebrates sceine as logical development better now then in past. Presump is that past less good then the present. Get rid of teleological sense of progress. As complex as today just different as today Historciing disease - Rosenberg - Disease is a social phenomenom - All give different meanings to it - Disease how past agents conceived perceidved disease perceptualized it - Today disease Is caused by germs but theory of germs is located end of 19 century get rid of it and see in terms of plague though identified microorganism causing plagued mno sense projecting into medieval period how though about In own terms and own time Snake cane - Not think past in terms of present but can teach us about the present - Who logo - Modern world but of ancient symbol - Rod and snake - Rod of Asclepius - One of gods of health in antiquity portrayed rod with snake flury of interpretations bc snake changes skin symbol of resurrection and used symbol of health, - Caduceus (name) paired with the two snakes - Cad quite common, apparently mistake of official of us army trun 20 who confused the term - Cad military hospital Today - Western medical tradition - To refer the past and respect try to draw of past to get authority - Western part of world - As a specific tradition not universal tradition – specific tradition Who One of the features - Past considered main source of authority - Operating in that tradition - Past begign of tradition the greek medical tradition remained source of authority - People looked to the past the ancients got it right what needed to do was to build on that and perfect it knowledge of ancients was correct one - Different then us we know it better then them - Idea knowledge focus on the present and future and patronizr past inferior to us - Got it right and need to understand how they did it – mental attitude Map - Greece number of people think of healing practices medicine and where does ddisease come from from gods from environment, gods and goddeses a lot to say about health and disease - Asclepius most famous gods of antiquity Epidaurus - Medicine and religion recurrent in this course - Most important temple of ascelpius and beteer travel to the temple health ractices considered important one involves sleeping and dreamin about god and dreams can heal you - When chrisitinaity bc main relgion peple do same thing appropriated to other saints Med and phil - Some say all started with buch of philo look at nature and cosmos and think what is bases of body and what are essential elements of nature that can justify how body works - Thales – water fundamental principal of all things - Thales remembered as interesting and astronomer and falls into pit and maid nearby look at sky and know what is next to you, thales of miltis now turkey Empedocles - Look at nature what are constitutes not just water but air fire and considered together of qualities of hot cold wet and dry Necxt alcmaeon - Body reflects cosmos 4 elements and qualities and all in harmony Hippocrates - Builds on these theories - Celeb of medicine - Attribute a lot to him but identity and authorship is not clear - Bunch of treatis Hippocratic corpus attributed to Hippocrates - Hippo was a physician some as god like Asclepius not certainity of what he authored what he
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