JHE353 OCT 22.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Marga Vicedo

JHE353 OCT 22, 2012 TUTORIAL UNIFORMATARISM - Process occurring in present are same as in the past - Continual creation and destruction - Steady state approach slow and gradual change - Expanded age of the earth made evolution possible - Lyell, Hutton (Darwin) Darwin’s natural selection - Heritable variation + struggle for existence + differential reproduction = gradual change of population divergence + new species - Species + varieties - Distinct species on top - Variteties of same species in middle - Original species on bottom - Beanching evolution - Process of natural selection (divergence) Lamarck Complexity on y axis and time on x axis Question What was main contribution of linneus to biological thought - Biologiocal taxonmomy, orderfing based on kingdom etc - Natural order of all of natural - Species as unit of classification - Still use it today as a classification system - Notable for heriracrhal classification – natural class tries to find order to all that is observable - Problem of natural class is too many varieties between species - Do you take into account color of eyes - Come up with logical system cleary for our own purposes – artificial classifaction - Based plants on sex organs – our own purposes - Class plants based on sex animals very broadly based on visible characterisitic - Based human and primates same group - Linneus naming sstem binomial nomenclature – not first one to use this by using two names but first to standardize it - Named over 7000 plants and 4400 animals - Past time for people – anyone could do this go out into field and classify it based on linneus - Views of transmutation - Young fixity and older new species formed through hybridization critizied for inconsistency - Intro new terms - And privledged first hand observation - Bio taxon,my, binomial nomne, artificial class What was great chain of being - Complexity increase - Heriacrchal order of the universe - Fixity god made perfrect order way change it - Aristotle - No evolution to occur - No between species - Not explain extinction - And foun d fossils why fossils go extinct - How accodamate species that have two fdifferent characterisitics - Ladder is same as great chain of being – not theological but also science concept - Ladder – Lamarck - Lmarck treat species as linear to complex – he formed two parallel lines plants and animals and allowed branching to occur – away from standard fix system What argument from design - Palley watch - God created everything bc complex everything is and how everything fits perfectly togtehr - Change one thing change entire thing - Watch created for function - Argument from analogy – powerful devise Darwin would use in orign of species - Pallaeys – natural theology published in 1802 Lamarck - Vertrbrae species – no organ - How account for complexity – simple organisms don’t have complex things like the eye - Phe said produced form natural and physical laws - And power of electricity – nervous fluid - Drive organism to become more complex - Ladder of nature - All species on earth fueled to be more complex and move this ladder - Progressive evolution - Diagram - Earlier species are most simplest more time more complex they become - Local environment  new needs  inner feeling new efforts  new habits  use/disuse  new structures  - New environment new needs , sahara of Africa trees destroyed – environemtn fo change and new need need new way to reach leaves – inner feeling desire to survive change something and accomadate for changes in local environment – giraffes stretch neck – more attention to grow neck to reach leaves top of tree - Emphasis Lamarck principle of use and disuse – stop using it disappears - Use and disuse lead to new structure and based on – inheritance of acquired characteristics - Changes in environment – change inner feeling drive to become more complex - Change in one generation and based on to next generation - Process takes time not a short amount of time Cuvier main contribution to study of life - Advocate idea of comparative anatomy - Two rules - Correlation of parts – study bone of animal teel what used for and what the animal is - Opposing evolutionary change – part perfectly fitted in order to change on thing need to change all parts of the system - Strong argument against evolution nd - And 2 - Is subdivion of characters - ? something about adaptation - Classification system - 4 geberal plan - Vertebrae, mollusk, spiders (segemneted body). Radiate (circular design) - Comaprtive anatomy and study of fossils supported idea of extinction What did cuver lamark think ofextinction - Lamark no extinction – transmute from one species to another not see today bc changed - Cuvier – mass extinction not evolution - Why debabte important ? - Religious implication – how does species created by god just disappear – scientific explanations questioning great chain of being, and theories of geolgy - Also about nature of life itself heighten debate of life itself th - Debate on 18 century - Geoffrey Saint hillair - Essay question make an argument – why it matters 4 points and elaborate and use examples – understand materal and making connections How did religion influence study of life during 18 and 19 century th - Compliment biblical events - And stagger biological thought - Natural theology - Explaining natural world to biblical events - And usher 6000 years – no time for evolution - Personal approach to human history – bible no history before humans Time? - Earth much older according to geological - But not according to bible - Natural vs divine explanation – which one is better - And religion opened question about natural - Not explain natural laws where is room for god - Recognize natural world with biblical accounts of creations - Also looking if universe can operate by natural laws Darwin first evo - Lamarck - Wallace - Darwin’s grandfather Erasmus - Buffon - Robert Chambers – was another natural scientist – published vestiges huge sensation pop evolution through idea into peoples faces – question of religious, good and bad science - Reason Darwin tamed publishing – bc vestiges critical feedback and if he publish his book rejected as well - All people or more thinking of evolution Major idea put forward in geology - Plutonism – heat creat earth - Neptune – layers rock laid down by water - Unif – gradual - Cata – violent revolutions change everything - Theory coexisted same tim e- debate on better way to explain geological chamge - Werener - Different approaches to anser - Where did water go for flood – Pluto volcano - And how old was the earth - One and two Geology evo - Gave age of the earth - Older the earth more likely gradual change led to evolution - Explain fossils – explain movement of species across land - Why find whale bones on top of mountain Charles Lyell - Geologist uniformat - Supporter of Darwin - Same process now have always been at work - And not look at processes not happening now like giant floods - Inspired by hutton - Hutton not get credit bc overshadowed by Werner - Wewell named uniformatarism - Lyell refers to the principle - Hutton creation and destruction - Wewell named it – advocated same theory - Hutton plut and Werner neptun – both gradual but explained it differently - Hutton some uni some cata – so ignore based on unif - Raises that people think of same thing explain it differently - Hutton not a good writer who could explain idea – lyell was lawyer and use evidence to make case - lyellPrinciples of geology 3 volumes 1830 and 1833 – premise educated lay people earth not 6000 years old not to convince scientist - max amounts of data – style ofwr
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