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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Marga Vicedo

JHE353 OCT 15, 2012 TUTORIAL Email any questions for tutorial for Monday This week on Darwin and Wallace the reason biography is why not Wallace’s theory of evolution. Bio not just tell us fascinating stories but about how they formed their ideas. “You care for nothing but shooting dogs and rat catching and will be a disgrace to yourself and all your family.” Darwin’s father Not want to be member of the clergy but wanted to have fun Malthus struggle of existence is not the same thing of survival of the fittest, 1860 herbert to explain class differences. Malthus talks about resources need to survive and resources. Not same but are used interchangenly Malthus and palley their works become fundamental to natural selection, paley one of darwins favorite book. And struggle for existence gave Darwin idea for natural selection Lamarck Book about of flowers of England in 1789 and allowed him to get membership in French academy of sciences – prestige and honor - 1788 botanist at jardin du roi – taking care of flowers and looking at petals and how to classify them like Cuvier employed by bank of French revolution – French revo through away idea of things not changing – things stable can be overthrown so easily – came up that have two hierarchies one of animals and plants – not linear started to branch out - Branching classification system - - 1794 appointed to invertebrate zoology – from plants to zoological animals – completely different then looking at plants - 1802 coined term biology study of life – evolution center to analysis need concept of change - Overshadowed by big giant in society by Cuvier – best position and studying paleontology – see lamarcks publications did not see light of day - While studying zoology – simple organism of life no complexity how account to whole design element – could be produced directly by natural law – physics at its best – so simple could have came out from nothing but followed natural law – life started by spontaneous generation – how something from nothing the power of electricity – electricity was also responsible for the nervous system of higher animals - Electricity at time was fascinating scientific topic and theory of natural world and include electricity in it - Electrical bathtub – electricity shake you shake off dirt - Argued electi4ricty was important for carving out matter - Going from simple to more complex - All species have power of life that encourages them to be more complex and find themselves in natural world - Simple to more complex graph and time – high y complex - The simpler organism the more simple and more complex existed longer – and simple will become complex over generations – have ladder or escalator - Spontaneous generation by power of electricity (“nervous fluid”) - Inner feeling (“power of life”) guides complexity - Hierarchy of species as a ladder (escalator) - Use + disuse/inheritance of acquired characteristics – use something grows and more come into play and not use it doesn’t go – vestibular organs use to serve important function now don’t – more complex by using different parts – inheritance of acquired characteristics- one generation past on in reproduction – bigger muscles then past on – to explain the giraffe neck – neck grew through power of life need to survive - Acquired characteristics was folk belief of why people have red hair and why kids look like parents - Acquired was a respected belief back in the day - Lamarck idea of inner feeling guiding complexity not want to change – it’s the more you use a part and the more it grows same with giraffe neck - Any transformation that occurs through use and disuse – and use and disuse it guided by inner feeling Graph showing Darwin and Wallace Why bio is important – more know of individual – Darwin industry refer to historians used to define those who study Darwin and write about him – they want to do explain how he came up with the idea – create this network – how can Darwin tell us of social affairs of that time – Darwin figure to explore all dynamics of Victorian – against slavery his grandfather was 1867 many titles written about his work 555 in 1992 to 2009 explosion schoalrhsip to Darwin and then over 1000, Wallace only a handful of biographies – no other historical figure who had a industry named after him Darwin and Wallace understand influeinces Darwin at Edinburgh educated then quit then to Christ college in Cambridge – rich kid allowed him to get position on ship Darwin was a student and beetle collecting was all the rage – he has one beetle one hand and another in another hand and then sees another beetle and then puts one mouth poison spits out loses it Waalce quit school in 1837 to move to London and a mapping business and 1843 became a teacher at high school, and also studies natural history at school library – book vestigies was about ecolution and caused outrage Darwin came back he had theory worked out – 25 years to write it collecting more facts 27 dec 1837 – 2 oct 1836 – voyage of beagle - Found geo evidence – uniformatarism – steady gradual changes - lyell - Paleontological evidence – fossils support for “continuity of life” – megaherium large ground sloth – certain species persisted over time – the captain called them useless and just took up space – he shipped them off - Biogeographical evidence – distribution of species – why species look the same spread out of dffifernt land – if created on fixed point and spread out why existing across other place of land – rhea – local delicacy – eating different is difference from observing – bird ostrich - Evidence against paley’s argument of design – Galapagos mockingbirds finches – species common to on islad and not the other island – why similar species whom bc of isolation survive and adapt to environment – the finches beaks - The mocking bird what persuaded him – collection of mockingbird to London who looked different but same species - One divine creation then each island worth of individual creation that looked almost the same - Writing notes that differences of mocking bird undermine doctrine of fixity of species – Darwin’s first record written on transmutation of species - Wallace in 1837 took expedition to Henry bates to Amazon – collect rare birds plants and send them back to a botanical center in London – Wallace argued main purpose to collect facts to solve origin of species in 1840 he t
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