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May 18 - Lecture 2

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Wednesday, May 18, 2011
HIS311Y1 - Summer
Prof. C. Pennington
Lecture 2: Canada and the World to 1812
Quebec: neglected fur trade outpost, 1608-1663
Champlain’s alliance w/the Huron was created in 1609
Quebecs outpost was devastated because some Iroquois converted to Catholicism and other chose not to,
thus it caused tensions between the Aboriginal tribes
disease also wiped out the Iroquois population from 30 000 down to 20 000
1649: fall of Huronians
launched series of attacks that wiped out the settlement
seized to exist as ally of the French
some Jesuits were tortured to death by Iroquois
Algonquians were a nomadic tribe (moved around a lot)
less inclined to fall for Jesuits Catholic tactics
Iroquois were able to attack Quebec at will
1660: Iroquois/French alliance broke
the Iroquois did not like to fight untilthe last man standing’
if overwhelmed they’d leave or take other side
1660: dollar and the Long Sault
The royal colony of New France was established in 1663 by Louis XIV
Louis was a practitioner of absolutism: all authority is vested by the monarch with orders from God himself
there was a lot more than just the Quebec settlement (Acadia, central area called Kanata, and the colony of
New France was claimed by the French and had the fur trade with the natives
A political culture established: an absolutist political system with three central figures
Governor (now known as Governor-General): usually a military officer responsible for defense of the
colony and foreign affairs a.k.a. relations w/aboriginals and later w/ the British
he had to be a very impressive figure of authority as most of his role was bluff:pomp and
Comp de Frontenac is the most famous governor: he spent lots of money on the Office of the
Governor in order to appear superior; impress the colony
Intendant: had a lot of real authority
he was a civil servant; bureaucrat
was the finance administrator of justice, supported and housed the troops
in day-to-day affairs he had more sway: he knew what was going on
Bishop: shows no notion of separation of church from state

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had a specific political role: part of the triad of administrative government
his main interest was the soul of the colony
there was no democracy, no votes to elect leaders
King Louis XIVs will was to be strictly obeyed
in practice it did not always work like that as Canada was far away from Paris
the King and his advisors did not know what was going on
the leaders of the colony were isolated
they had to make decisions on their own
had to be very receptive to people: had to keep them happy because they couldn’t call for re-
enforcements right away in case of conflict
they created means (for looking after the people) that may not have happened if the colony was in
direct contact with the monarchy
New France was to remain a ‘compact colony’
Acadia was neglected
up until 1701: New Frances goal was to keep the colony small (easy to defend and make less enemies)
the boundaries however were violated by governors interested in trade - proceeded far beyond what the
militia could defend
Failure of ‘compact colony’
1701 was a year of great peace when French and Iroquois were getting along
colonies of Brits were larger in population, wealthier, had greater military power and were looking to expand west
1.this caused conflict since the French claimed the west as their own
1701 the French abandoned the west in favour of containment strategy:
to try to maintain as much territory as possible (close to Quebec)
to stop the British from expanding
to establish forts in interior: Fort Ducane in Pittsburg
the French were politically reliant on good relations with the aboriginals who had control of the territory
but could be persuaded to work with the French because of trade
the French took trade loss from getting less than they wanted but it was worth it as it contained the Brits
War of Spanish succession 1701-13
the fall of Acadia
significant: in North America it was important as it was a British victory and thus ended up conquering Acadia
at the peace treaty the French said Acadia would go but it would be divided by theoriginal boundaries” - which
no one was sure of what they were
the agreement caused friction with NWFL and Nova Scotia
1713-44 long peace
greatest peace and prosperity in New France
but both British and French were gearing for conflict just doing so in slow motion
Cape Breton Island (now): then was a military base in disputed territory - the French stand on the issue signaled
that they were serious
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