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HIS311Y1 – Lecture 6
Borden, Canada, and the first world war, 1911-21
Sir Robert Borden (1854-1937)
intelligent, plodding, Nova Scotian lawyer
conservative party leader, 1901-20
Prime minister of Canada, 1911-20
Borden's view of the empire
nationalist and imperialist
Call us to your councils
he said to the British, stating that Canada should be more represented in British counsel
Loring Christie (wanted closer relation with Britain)
Borden's Diplomacy, 1911-14
relations with the US
Underwood Tariff, 1913 (could trade freer with the US)
Peace War”, 1914 (100th anniversary of the last conflict between Canada and the US)
relations with Britain
visit to London, 1912 (to discuss naval building with Churchill)
Naval Aid Bill, 1912-13 (bill intended to send $35 million to the British to pay for 3
Dreadnought ships) ******** this term or other naval bill (involving Laurier) will
probably be a identification question on the midterm)
Committee of Imperial Defence
British institution that was a gathering of the “white dominions, used to help direct
war in a conservative manner
The 'Europe of two counsel camps', June-August 1914
The Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, plus the Ottoman Empire)
The Triple Entente (Russia, France, Britain)
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, June 28, 1914 (sparked the war)
Serbian assassin shot him
July Crisis, 1914
the Schlieffen Plan (if alliance were to protect Serbia, then Germany would enact this plan
which involved invading France)
the 'Blank Cheque'
Britain's indecision (once Belgium was invaded, Britain joined the war)
German invasion of France and Belgium
Canada's Involvement in 1914
very small army, thousands compared to empire's millions
Britain's request for Canadian Troops
Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914
'over by Christmas'
The Western Front, 1914-18
trench warfare
'No Man's Land' (barbed wire, bodies, artillery)
machine guns were prominent and disastrous
'war of attrition'
2 nd
Battle Ypres, 1915
The “Wipers salient ('Wipers' was the manner in which the Canadians pronounced Ypres)
chlorine gas attack (spread from enemy lines, many blinded, not as many died)
major John McCrae (wrote 'In Flander's Fields')
Major Canadian Battles, 1916-18
The Somme, 1916
British lost 55 thousand men in the first few hours
Vimy Ridge, 1917
most successful Canadian battle (Arthur Currie was the battle technician)
Passchendaele, 1917
used a tactic called the creeping barrage (16 thousand killed or wounded)
Hundred Days, 1918
Amiens (place where the troops attacked the German's)
Seeking a Voice, 1914-16
annoyance with Britain, “the same just voice
visit to England and France, July-Aug 1915
toy automata”