HIS102Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Concentration, Print Culture, Bourbon Reforms

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Published on 27 Mar 2018
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Atlati Reolutios
͞Introduction: Rewriting Imperial Relationships (1756 - 1825)
Metropole: the mother country in the process of colonizing (Britain)
Periphery: edges of empire (BNA)
1756: 7 Years War
1825: Bolivia's independence
Large empires have expanded into the Americas with large numbers of settlers
New global economy, trade networks
What factor is most important in the furthering of the periphery's resistance to the metropole,
and why?
͞Setting the Stage: The Seven Years' War͟
Leading up to the Atlantic Revolutions, wars happened between the powers, influenced the
tensions between the metropole and periphery as well
Involved most of the great powers of the world: In NA it involved the British, French, Spanish; in
the rest of the world it involved the Holy Roman Empire, Russia
Ended with a treaty in 1763, with a decisive victory for Britain
“tarted as a delierate strateg to aitai their territor → alost oplete loss of Freh
territory in North America
Britain and Spain attempted to validate their territory (both new and old) through fairly
unsuccessful ways
While trig to irease their authorit, the raised taes ad set up trade regulatios → log
lasting tensions between Britain vs. French/Spanish (integral in the American revolution)
Increased tensions between colonies and mother countries
Spain's Bourbon reforms
o Trade restraints, tax plans
On the global scale, this turned France away from colonizing in the New World, and into Africa and
Southeast Asia
Strengthened British control in India
͞Populations, Conflict, Ideology: Causes of Revolution͟
Which revolutions?
o American Revolution (1775-83)
Fed from tensions that occurred because of British attempts to consolidate power
Taxation without representation
Boston Tea Party
Wanted their own independence
French and Spanish supported the Americans in this war
Did not want to be too violent or completely change things (maintained most of
British administration policy)
In Britain, loss of America as its colony moved focus to India
Damage economy, impacting situation in French (leading to French Revolution
In Spain, led to trade blockades, Bourbon reforms were harsh leading to further
unrest
o French Revolution (1789-99)
The success of the American revolution was inspiring
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Fuelled by the inequalities of French society, access to power and privilege
Became a lot more violent than the Americans
Declared themselves a republic, executed their king (Louis XVI)
Other Europea oarhs ere iseure → risk of reolutioar ars throughout the
continent
Napolean takes revolutionary France into the rest of the world
o Haitian Revolutions (1791-1804)
Saint Domingue was colonized by Frencch
Used revolutionary ideals/rhetoric for their own purposes (trade embargo) but feared
the people's exposure to similar ideas
Poor, small black population, large population of slaves
Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789): men are born free, remain free and have
equal rights
Toussaint L'Ouverture lead this revolution, fight against France
Restructured island society, becoming an d independent nation
Agriculture completely destroyed, horribly violent
First black republic in Americas, adding to legacy of successful revolutions
o Latin American Revolutions (late 18th century=early 19th century)
Occurred after Spain falling to Napoleonic France
Power vacuum due to lack of Spanish monarch, in which the colonial elites moved into
Hatred of Bourbon reforms, protecting status quo
Avoiding radical revolution, as well tensions within racially diverse societies
Chile, Peru, Bolivia (regions that break away as independent)
Destructive: Spain was not under France's control for very long, and Spanish monarchs
put a lot of military force behind reclaiming their fractured territory
Strong legacy of military participation in government
High degree of continuity in society's culture
Population: diversity and disenfranchisement
o In USA
Different interests in Northern vs. Southern parts
Differences between wealthy landowners and workers
o In France
society was divided with class differences/religious minority/economic
status/language/regional identity
Lawyers were key in the revolution
o Haiti
Disenfranchised
Colonial elites were angered by loss of their autonomy
Law separated black and whites as well as tensions in white landowners and poor
populations
Revolutionary leaders were usually free blacks or slaves with more authority (against
the idea of the poorest-of-the poor)
o Latin America
Religious peoples were key in the movement
Conflict: Internal and International
o Revolutionary ideas were not uniform; many disagreement among the people themselves
o Conflict between people maintaining status quo and those wanting radical cahge
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Document Summary

Large empires have expanded into the americas with large numbers of settlers and why? (cid:862)setting the stage: the seven years" war(cid:863) Leading up to the atlantic revolutions, wars happened between the powers, influenced the tensions between the metropole and periphery as well. Spain"s bourbon reforms: trade restraints, tax plans, on the global scale, this turned france away from colonizing in the new world, and into africa and. Strengthened british control in india (cid:862)populations, conflict, ideology: causes of revolution(cid:863: which revolutions, american revolution (1775-83) Fed from tensions that occurred because of british attempts to consolidate power: taxation without representation, boston tea party, wanted their own independence, did not want to be too violent or completely change things (maintained most of. French and spanish supported the americans in this war. In britain, loss of america as its colony moved focus to india: damage economy, impacting situation in french (leading to french revolution.

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