HIS102Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Gabriel, Sub-Saharan Africa, Ulama
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The Spread of Islam
Faith, Community and Civilization.
1. Introduction: Islam and the Umma
- Umma is the community of believers in Islam
- Dar-al-Islam an area dominated by people of Islam (political)
- It expanded politically and frayed overtime, religious and political authority was
separated therefore, the community of faith continued.
- A system of government, social organization or community (islamic)
- Islamic regions were cosmopolitan,
- It spread by peaceful conversion, conquest, battles and war.
- It spread to china not a big impact because of their own religion to south east asia the
political rule was not successful but RELIGION did
- Muhammad got messages from jibreel, he did not write on paper but leaves
- Chinese gave them the access to technology of paper so quran was on paper then.
- Hadith reports of things that were written by his followers about the things he said.
Debate of fabrications, potential for disagreement.
- Muhammad was a prophet and the last of the ones after abraham, moses and jesus,
they incorporated christians and jews as people of the book.
- People disagreed between the religions
- Islamic religion was similar to indigenous rules.
- It spread around the arabian peninsula and after his death there were wars about who is
the successor to muhammad.
2. From the Early Years to the Caliphate
- Civil wars and caliph was the leader of the religion
- The shi’a were believers of Ali and they believed in another line of successor
- They fought between Shi’a and Sunni in the battle of the camels.
- Ismaili aga khan is the head of the ismaili of the religion.
- Two main dynasties were umayyad dynasty lasted 100 years and developed a
cosmopolitan dynasty, high taxes, elaborate structure and created resentment by the
people, the expansion stopped after the military was defeated.
- Abbasid Dynasty they lasted much longer and they were not genuine rulers and
overthrown by the mongols in 1258. They had the capital to baghdad.
- Islam spread until year 733
- Muslims defeated the sassanid and the byzantine empire and took over their territory.
3. Conquest and Conversion
- They managed the conquest not to allow arab soldiers to intermix with the foreigners.
- They wanted separation and they did not pay taxes and they did not convert them.
- Northern africa carthage dominated the mediterranean, until around 300 camels were
introduced from arabia, evidence of saddles proves it.
- With camels they could cross the sahara desert and they could reach central africa and
could trade more.
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