Class 5 Oct 9 Korea.docx

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Class 5 Oct 9 Korea
1. According to myth,
“a royal refugee from the fall of the Shang founded the state of the Chosen( an old name for Korea).
That too seems improbable, though more plausible, and in any case fits with the transfer of much of
Shang culture and technology to Korea during the first millennium BCE.
~SHIJI by Sima Qian: mentions a state of Chosen.(190 B.C.E)
2.Conquer of Korea by Han dynasty:
108 BCE: Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty conquered Chosen.
3. Three Kingdoms Period(57BC-688BC):
*With the collapse of Chinese rule, 3 kingdoms of indigenous Koreas develop.
~ Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla.
*With the collapse of the Han Dynasty, Chinese refugees flee to Korea.
*Each of the 3 kingdoms seek contact with China to increase competitive advantage.
~In the course of the 4th century, Goguryeo expanded to control roughly the same northern two-thirds
of the Korea peninsula that the Chinese had annexed to their empire.
~Goguryeo maintains tributary relations with northern Chinese states.
#sets up university to teach Confucian classics.
#adopts Chinese-style code of law.
~Paekche establishes tributary relations by sea with the Eastern Jin.
#sends embassy to China.
~Since Silla is more isolated from China, it is less advanced than the other 2 kingdoms.
Nevertheless, slowly adopts Chinese bureaucratic system.
* Goguryeo Dominance.(399-493)
4. Silla Period(668-935)
*Silla becomes a tributary state of Tang China
~Annual tributary missions to Tang China
~Silla borrows Chinese political institutions and Chinese
#Silla uses Tang as it model
#Korean students and monks go to China to study.
5.Bone-rank.
6.In 788 all official posts were filled through examinations in the Confucian classics, but in keeping with
the Korean tradition of hereditary privilege, candidates were limited to the aristocracy.
7.Reinforcing the social hierarchy.
8. The status of Women.
9. Decline and Fall of Silla
*royal clan breaks up into contending units
*”Bone ranks” no longer provides social cohesion.
*borrowed Chinese institutions not based on merit.
*heavy taxes lead to rebellions.
10. Koryo Dynasty(889-1259)
* Adoption of Chinese government institutions
* 958: Civil service exam system adopted
* BUT, hereditary aristocracy still dominates top positions
* During later Koryo:
~ “Bone ranks” dispear.
~ new aristocratic families dominate court
11. Status of Women in Koryo Socirty
* family traced its ancestry back through both the female and male line.
*Husbands frequently moved into the house of the wife and children grew up among the wife’s family.
*All offspring, including women, shared equally in the inheritance of a parent; a sister could take the
property with her when she married.
* A woman could divorce at will, and kept possession of her children.
12. The burden of Corvee Labour
13.The 1170 military coup.
*1196: military rule: power is concentrated in the hands of a military aristocracy.
14. Mongol Rule:
*1231: Mongols invade Korea.
* Mongol Rule 1260-1351:
~Mongols marry their daughters to Koryo Kings, thus legitimizing their rule.
~Government reorganized to make Koreans subservient to Mongols
~Koryo aristocracy become Mongolized in culture.( supplant Korean culture).
~Peasants taxed to pay for invasions of Japan.
15. End of the Koryo:
* Mongol power wanes with the outbreak of rebellions in China
* Anti-Mongol Ming forces enter Korea.
* 1388: YI SONG-GYE sent to attack Mng forces, but instead of attacking the Chinese, seizes the
Korean court.
* 1392: fall of the Koryo Dynasty.