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Lecture 5

HIS311 Lecture 5 - Bothwell

Course Code
Robert Bothwell

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Lecture 5: 09/28/10
Seven Years War/French Indian War
Newcastle: William Pitt
Fort William Henry
British colonies grew in population in the mid 18th century more and more waves
of immigrants and high birth rates (in both French and English colonies)
Immigration: you remain a subject of the monarch in the lands you were born
Problems: 17th century produced many refugees looking to avoid persecution
Others were encouraged by local authorities to (???)
If you move to a British colony, you have the same rights as people who were born
-German was almost the major language in Pennsylvania
-In Great Britain, England was the most dominant of the union
The absorption of Scotland caused rebellion and social economic change
(people were driven off the land)
Ireland is a rich source for immigrants as well
-In the colonies, land speculation is a big way to make money (growth in population
meant the growth in land possessions mostly to the west and in
-Each colony had a:
Governor (from England)
Elected assembly
The British had to spend very little in their colonies (which were very devolved and
decentralized in the 18th century)
-There was not much of a standing army in the colonies
-George 1st and 2nd were German born thus their most important foreign priority was
British foreign policy is European oriented
Louis XIV in 1701 developed a policy: French colonies should expand around the
Great Lakes and Ohio, down the Mississippi to Louisiana
-The French Empire cost more than the British colonies because they had fewer
resources and were thus much more dependent on infusions of money/soldiers
-During King George’s War, New France was relatively weak—it was saved however
because of the natural barrier separating it from the British colonies to the south (a
natural frontier)
However, this frontier is beginning to erode
-France then sends new military officers to New France (called the Wild Governors)
to take action to stop the British frontier from advancing (they establish forts)
Population of New France is 60 000; the governor mobilizes many French Canadians
to build forts and build roads – 400 die (not in battle but from disease)
-This turns out to be a huge effort from New France
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