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Lecture 7

HIS102Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Quebec Act, Appeasement, Lower Canada

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Robert Bothwell

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Lecture 7: 10/4/10
War involving France, Spain, Poland, Britain and the United States
-Nova Scotia has same structures of government as the colonies to the south
It is settled by immigrants from the colonies and thus there is a strong
cultural affinity with people from Boston (etc.)
-Why Nova Scotia didn’t join the war:
1. Strong British garrison in Halifax
2. An Island
3. The rebels were suppressed
-Quebec: the French population was rapidly increasing (a population of 75 000) of
this population, roughly 2000 spoke English. The English speakers were from the
American colonies and from Britain
-The people of Quebec were mostly (mercantile) merchants who were not interested
in fighting in the war because if New York was taken out of the trade, Montreal
would prosper (Montreal’s opportunity was New York’s loss)
-Carleton, a British colonel, wanted to appease the French Canadians. The Quebec
Act was established to give status to the French language and Catholic toleration
Carleton hoped the population would rally to support him – and they all did.
French seigneurs rallied too because they also benefited they would be the
ones to govern Quebec
-The majority however was not as strongly attached to Catholicism as the British
had hoped they would not go to war with Britain because they had been granted
religious tolerance
-Carleton defeated the Americans had the Americans won, the French population
would have become American citizens (Massachusetts)
-Loyalists flee to Quebec and Nova Scotia
-The British have allies: of the first nations, 2/6 supports the Americans Iroquois
strength is on the British side
The natives are a minority and the Americans drive them out to the gates of
the post at Fort Niagara where they become refugees
-The southern colonies in America support African slavery (the economy depends on
the institution of slavery)
-When the British were at war, they appealed to the slaves (south of Maryland) if
the slaves reached British territory they would be free (an incentive to fight for the
British cause)
***NOTE: the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Paris (1783) are interchangeable
-The treaty is negotiated to end the war; if the politicians in Britain really wanted,
the king had to give way…which he did (his power was not absolute)
-The British were trying to create a condition in which in the future, the United
States would be friendly (appeasement)
By and large, when the Americans pressed to a particular outcome, the
British gave way
-The boundary situation was favorable to the Americans; Britain was able to keep
Quebec, Nova Scotia, Ontario (access to the Great Lakes)
-Ben Franklin pressed for the boundary promising eternal friendship in return
-The Treaty of 1783 divides native land
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