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Lecture 9

HIS102Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Lower Canada, Midwestern United States

Course Code
Robert Bothwell

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Lecture 9: 10/12/10
Potential Identification Topics:
-1814 Treaty of Ghent; 1817 Rush-Bahgot Agreement; 1818 Boundary Convention
-Some of the boundary issues had been dealt with in 1812
The Nova Scotia/Maine dispute was not resolved (boundary up St. John River)
-In 1783, the Lake of Woods Treaty took the boundary south to the 48th, 49th parallel
-The United States bought Louisiana (Mississippi to the Rockies) from Napoleon
there was not agreement between Britain and the US on this issue
-In 1812, both Britain and America have fleets (the largest British fleet in North
America is in Kingston)
-Both governments want to reduce expenditure aka stop building ships, etc.
-Rush Bahgot Treaty 1817: a minister (diplomat of Britain):
1. No more naval construction (no more building)
A disarmament agreement no more navy on the Great Lakes (functions for
200 years)
-Some claim that this leads to the undefended border NOT TRUE the border
continues to be defended (military construction continues) an army is maintained
in Canada until 1871
-The United States keeps army garrisons on the border as well, and there is a
relatively friendly relationship between Canadian and American officers
-Surveyors of the border were not very precise The US accidentally built a fort on
British territory and it had to be abandoned
-On the other side of the Rockies (Cascadia): Washington, Oregon and British
Colombia. Both the British and Americans have claims to this territory but neither
wanted to fight Oregon becomes a condominium, a shared sovereign (both
countries administer it)
-Phenomenon: a huge movement of the American population not to Canada but to
the American Midwest and towards Oregon
-The Spanish have a huge empire but between 1809-1826, they lose almost all of it
to Indian movements (the land is fragmented between Indian republics)
Mexico extends into California, Utah, Colorado, etc. (all ruled from Mexico
-Into this territory come English speaking settlers (a new demographic reality). By
1830, the majority are English speaking in Texas
-In 1830s, Texas declares independence. America wins against Mexico and Texas
becomes an independent state until 1845 Americans fear that Britain will turn
Texas into a protectorate
-In Canada, there are revolts in both Upper and Lower Canada. These revolts are
effectively suppressed as more people support British authority than the rebels led
by Cabineaut
-The British army in Lower Canada destroys/kills the rebels
-Mackenzie does not give up easily and from the United States, he builds and army.
Some in Canada resent the fact that the US allowed Mackenzie to do this.
-Canadians travel across the border to destroy the ship supplying the rebels
In International Law, this is called a pre-emptive attack. If it is certain you are
going to be attacked, you are entitled to attack first. The Caroline case is still
used today
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